COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS FROM MONOGAMOUS AND POLYGAMOUS HOMES IN IJUMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KOGI STATE
Guidance and Counselling Unit
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Alagbado, Ilorin
This study compared the academic achievement of students from monogamous and polygamous homes. The study was a descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 Junior Secondary School (JSS 1) Students from monogamous homes and 100 Junior Secondary School (JSS 1) students from polygamous homes. Simple random sampling method was used in selecting four secondary schools in Ijumu Local Government Areas of Kogi State, while stratified simple random sampling method was used in selecting the students. The Proforma was for collecting data on the academic achievement of the students. The data were analysis using t-test statistic, which indicated that a significant difference exists between the academic achievement of students from monogamous homes and those from polygamous homes. One of the implications of this finding to teaching and learning is that, a consideration of students’ family background is important because it will help teachers to find out the type of home the students come from. They will also be aware of the nature of social interactions in such a home and the psychological, social and emotional problems the students are facing at home. This knowledge will help teachers to counsel the students on how to overcome such problems and have positive attitudes towards the students so that their academics performance will not be adversely affected. The study recommended that parents from polygamous homes be counselled to ensure that their homes are rid of rancor and other anti-social behaviours that might negatively influence the child’s academic performance.
Over the years, many educational authorities have sought to find out the reasons for low academic performance of secondary school students (Salami, 2004; Ukuaza, 2007; Okonkwo, 2010; Osuafor and Okonkwo, 2013). The reasons included poor family background, including family structure, among others. Wilkins (1976) and Asehinwa (2013) noted that in monogamous homes both parents show active interest in what their child is doing at school. They also encourage their child’s reading habit and this enables them to have obvious advantage over their peers from polygamous homes. The authors further noted that the child from a polygamous family may have just few textbooks, while the child from monogamous homes may have almost all the books recommended at school. In polygamous homes, also, it may be the mother’s responsibility to see that the children do their homework, provide them with materials needed for academic work and in most cases, manage to pay the children school fees. This is contrary what happens in the monogamous families. Lewis (1981) also opined that in traditional African cultures (especially Nigeria) one of the reasons for sanctioning polygamous was the strong desire for offspring. In their yearning for children they tend to forget that the more the number of children they have, the more difficult it becomes to finance the education of these children.
Concerning students’ problems, Wilkins (1976) and Okonkwo (2010) emphasized that in the monogamous families degrees of agreement and violent disagreement are worked out by both husband and wife. Both also share the same losses and griefs. Adika (1987) noted that conflicts are relatively easier to solve in the monogamous than in the polygamous families. Moreover, less psychological disturbances are envisaged in monogamous than the polygamous homes. Students from polygamous homes are therefore more likely to experience more problems than students from monogamous homes. This will invariably affect their academic achievement. This is because, according to Essien (2002) psychological problems are potential sources of trouble for students’ learning. The above studies have revealed that the nature of social interaction that goes on in a family can affect the child psychologically emotionally and academically.
When a child is in poor mental state because of psychological disturbances, his/her academic performance may be affected. In view of the aforementioned reasons, there may be the tendency to hastily conclude that the polygamous will give rise to poor academic achievement. However, it is necessary to take cognizance of the fact that the resultant rivalry in polygamous homes may rather have positive effect on the children’s academic achievement. This is because in a bid to outshine the half-brothers/sisters, academically the children may be forced by circumstance to develop serious and healthy reading habits, thus enhancing their academic achievements. Besides, some polygamous fathers may still have interest in their children’s education and also have the means to adequately cater for them financially and otherwise.
Statement of the Problem
Considering the powerful influence of the home on the child, and its importance as a primary agent of socialization, there is no doubt that the academic achievement of the child can be enhanced or hindered depending on the social climate in the home. (Adesehinwa, 2013). Variance in the social climate in the monogamous and polygamous homes could be an indication to high or low academic performance of students. Adesehinwa (2013 and Osuafa and Okonkwo (2013) opined that research on this aspect has not been exhaustively looked into in Nigeria where the two types of family structure are actively practiced. This was why this study was designed and conducted.
Purpose and Significance of the Study
This study investigated the influence between students’ family type and their academic achievement. This was done by finding out whether a significant difference exists between the academic achievement of students from monogamous homes and those from polygamous homes in Ijumu Local Government Areas, Kogi State.
The findings of this study would reveal to teachers and parents the effect of the social climate at home on students’ academic performance. The need for parents to provide conducive environment at home for students’ learning and the need for teachers to adequately act as “loco parentis” and as counsellors to students would be highlighted.
The following general hypothesis was formulated to guide the study:
There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students from monogamous and polygamous homes in Ijumu L.G.A. the following operational hypotheses were posited:
HO1: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in English Language of students from monogamous and those from polygamous homes.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in Mathematics of students from monogamous and polygamous homes.
HO3: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in integrated science of students from monogamous homes and those from polygamous homes.
HO4: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in social studies of students from monogamous homes and those from polygamous homes.
This is a comparative study using the descriptive survey research approach. It involved 200 JSS 1 students sampled from four randomly selected schools in Ijumu local Government Areas, Kogi State. It consisted of 100 students from monogamous homes and 100 students from polygamous homes. Simple random sampling method was used to select four schools from all secondary schools in Ijumu Local Government Areas. Twenty students each were randomly selected from the science, Arts and commercial classes.
A questionnaire was used to elicit information on the students’ class in school and family type. A proforma was also used to collect the students’ examination results in four subjects namely English, Mathematics, Social Studies and Integrated Science. The grades of the students’ results were weighted thus:-
70 + A – 3 points
50 – 69 C – 2 points
40 – 49 D – 1 point
39 0r below F – 0 point
The maximum point a respondent could score is six while the minimum is 0. The score for the academic achievement of the students is the sum total he or she got in the four subjects. The t-test statistic was employed in testing the five hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance.
These results are presented in order in which the hypotheses were formulated.
General Null Hypothesis 1 (HO1) There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students from monogamous and polygamous homes
Table 1: The T-test analysis comparing the academic achievement of Students from Monogamous Families and Polygamous Families
|Respondents’ Family type||N||Mean||SD||Df||Table value||Calculated t –value|
Table 1 shows that the overall academic achievement of students from monogamous homes (mean = 2.08) was higher than that of students from polygamous homes (mean = 1.92) – at the 0.05 level of significance. There is because the calculated t (3.2) is greater than the tabulated t (1.96). This means that the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of the two family types.
Null Hypothesis 1 (HO1) – There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in English Language of students from monogamous and polygamous homes.
Table 2: The t-test Analysis Comparing Students Academic Achievement in English Language
|Respondents’ Family type||N||Mean||SD||Df||Table value||Calculated t –value|
In table 2, the calculated t (2.4) is greater than the tabulated t (1.96). Therefore the calculated t is significant. The null hypothesis is rejected because there is a significant difference in the academic achievement (mean scores) of students from monogamous and polygamous homes, in favour of the monogamous.
Null Hypothesis 2 (HO2): There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in Mathematics of students from monogamous and polygamous homes.
Table 3: The t-test Analysis comparing students’ achievement in Mathematics
|Respondents’ Family type||N||Mean||SD||Df||Table value||Calculated t –value|
In table 3, the calculated t (3.2) is higher than the tabulated t (1.96). This means that the calculated t is significant. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference in the academic achievement of students from monogamous and polygamous homes, in favour of monogamous homes.
Null Hypothesis 3 (HO3): There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in Integrated Science of students from monogamous and polygamous homes.
Table 4: The t-test Analysis comparing students’ academic achievement in Integrated Science.
|Respondents’ Family type||N||Mean||SD||Df||Table value||Calculated t –value|
In table 4, the calculated t (3.0) is greater than the tabulated t (1.96). There the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference between the academic achievement in Integrated Science of students from monogamous and polygamous homes. Since the students from the former home type had higher mean score (1.96) than those from the latter home type (1.75), the difference is in favour of the former.
Null Hypothesis 4 (HO4): There is no significant difference in the academic achievement in Social Studies of students from monogamous and polygamous homes.
Table 5: The t-test Analysis Comparing Students’ Academic Achievement in Social Studies.
|Respondents’ Family type||N||Mean||SD||Df||Table value||Calculated t –value|
Table 5, shows that the academic achievement in Social Studies of students from monogamous homes (mean = 2.3) higher than those of students from polygamous homes (mean = 1.9). The calculated t (3.4) is higher than the tabulated t (1.96). This means that there is a significant difference in the academic achievement of the two groups, in favour of the monogamous group.
The finding of this study shows that there is a significant difference in the overall academic achievement of students from monogamous families and those from polygamous families. This is in agreement with Salami (2004) who noted that high achieving children in comparison to low achievers came from homes where there was a high level of parental interest, an orderly home environment and an awareness of the child as an individual. Moreover, Ukueze (2007) and Nwachukwu (2012) have shown that these characteristics are more prevalent in the monogamous families than in the polygamous families
This difference was also reflected in the students’ achievement in four subjects which are English, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Social Studies. However, one cannot rule out the possibility of having some polygamous homes who can adequately take care of their children, and also make the social climate at home conducive for the children educational advancement. This may be because the various parents are financially buoyant, and that the father takes care of the children and the wives without being partial. The Nigerian culture also expects grown up and able children from such homes to take care of their brothers and sisters. Some students from such polygamous homes may be able to outperform their counterparts in Monogamous homes if they are exposed to a social climate like their counterparts in monogamous families. Moreover, through counselling, it is possible for some students from polygamous homes to develop positive attitudes to the problems associated with the social climate in their homes to the extent that their academic achievement will not be adversely affected. (Ignesi, 2003).
Implications of the findings
A consideration of students’ family background is very important in teaching and learning. This is because this study has shown that the nature of social interaction within the family can influence the child’s personality. A negative influence on a child’s emotions and thoughts will consequently affect his/her academic achievement. The school is the second home of the child, therefore, the social climate for learning in the school should be more conducive so that the students can do better in their academics.
An interest in students’ family background will help teachers to find out the type of family their students come from, the nature of social interactions in such homes and the psychological, social and emotional problems the students are facing at home. This knowledge will assist teacher in giving students the necessary advice and counselling.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This study has revealed that students from monogamous homes perform better academically than those from polygamous homes. The home environment and the nature of human relationships in monogamous and polygamous homes are therefore important determining factors in students’ academic achievement. In as much as monogamous and polygamous homes are accepted family patterns in Nigeria, the task before the psychologist and guidance counsellors is how to create conducive environment for learning in these homes
Enlightenment programmes could be carried out to let parents (especially those from polygamous homes) realize the influence of the activities that go on in their homes on their children academics. This could be done by organizing seminars on homes and students’ academic achievement for the parents. This could also be done during Parent – Teachers Association meetings.
The parents should also be counselled to ensure that their homes are rid of rancour and other anti-social behaviors that might influence the child’s achievement negatively. Students from such homes also need to be counselled specially in order to be serious with their academics without being distracted as a result of the rivalry, disagreements and conflict that characterize such homes.
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Ignesi, B. N. (2003) Comparative Study of the Academic Achievement of Students from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Offa Kwara State. Unpublished Thesis
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Osuafor, A., & Okonkwo, I. (2013). Influence of family background on academic achievement of secondary school Biology students in Anambra state. African Research Review 7 (3): 156-157
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Sanders, M. (1974). Clinical assessment of leaning problems. London: Allyn and Bacon inc.
Salami, S.O. (2004). Affective characteristics as determinants of academic performance of school going adolescents: Implications for counselling practice. Sokoto Education Review, 7:154-160
Ukueze, A.C. (2007). Learner variables of academic performance and adjustment of junior secondary school students: Counselling implications for UBE. The Counsellor 23:172-183
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PERCEPTION OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS ON THE CAUSES OF DELAYED MARRIAGE AMONG WOMEN IN KWARA STATE
Jamiu ABDUR-RAFIU Ph.D
[email protected], 07068231116
Shukurat Abake ABDUR-RAFIU (Mrs.)
Sophie Kidz Private School, Ilorin
Mikaeel Olayide BADMOS
(Part time Lecturer)
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin)
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage among women in Kwara state. The questionnaire was used to elicit information on the perception of female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage among women in Kwara state. 400 filled questionnaires were collected and used. The data collected were analysed using percentage and t-test statistical. The findings of the study revealed that family background, education factor, social factor and personal factor are among the causes of delayed marriage among women. It was also revealed that there is significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage. Based on the findings from this study it was recommended among others that there is need for proper orientation of females on importance and values of marriage. There is need of inclusion of marriage education in the content of general studies curriculum. This would help in enlightening the females’ young adults the appropriate timing for marriage and get them acquainted with the scourge of delayed marriage.
Marriage remains an important institution which lays the foundation of a family which is the bedrock of a society. Marriage is the ultimate human connection in which two people commit themselves fully and faithfully to each other in a lifelong journey of deep sharing, mutual respect and growing intimacy. When the commitment is total, clear and unreserved, partners are encouraged freely and openly to share their inner struggles and fears as well as their joys and triumphs.
Marriage has, despite demographic and political shifts, significant value for the individual, families and the society (Nock, 2005). When looking at marriage as an institution, as opposed to a free-standing concept, marriage represents socially sanctioned behaviour. Marriage embraces traditional virtuous, legal and predictable assumptions concerning what is moral and what is proper (Nock, 2005). Through marriage an individual is transformed; they are perceived and treated differently by society and even enjoy rights / privileges unmarried individuals do not. Married couples are perceived as more mature, stable, committed and responsible. This means that regardless of an individual’s opinion or value of his / her marriage, there are broader implications–society’s connotation (Tehilla, nd).
Mana (2000) referred to Levine & Hennessy (1990 as having submitted that maintaining a marriage is not easy in a society where one out of every two marriages will end in divorce. Early marriage is followed by early divorce for many, so it is not surprising that teenage marriages are likely to fail. Also, Omendi and Kamonjo (2015) agreed with the view of Nicky and Sila (2000) who pointed out that many people in the West view marriage as a temporary contract between couples for as long as their love lasts. They also explained further that if the relationship is not personally fulfilling, then it is better to get out of it or if there is no more love in a marriage, it is better to end it. The above submission might be what has led some people not to show enthusiasm in marriage or develop anxiety in marriage and thereby resolve to delay it.
Statement of the Problem
Over the past decades, there have been many changes in the attitudes towards marriage among women in the world. These attitudes are caused by today’s society and women are more focused on their career than getting married. Many women are investing a lot of time in higher education and pursuing careers, and in the process they’re deferring marriage. Today women are also obtaining advanced degrees and becoming more successful in work place. They are giving much more importance to the education and career as they want to become self-dependent. Education for single women is much more important because it is only after achieving education that they can get a job. It is necessary for their survival to be economically independent. However, not much research has been done on single women .Yet, because of their special status, and they deserve a critical outlook analysis (Beri & Beri, 2013).
Moreso, Omondi and Kamonjo (2015) noted that in the traditional African society, marriage was considered a rite of passage. People had high regard for it and therefore had positive perception about it. Delayed marriage, divorce and single parenthood were very rare and emergence of social phenomena such as street children was unheard of. This was partly because of the presence of elders who offered marital advice to couples whenever they had problems. Currently, contrary to what used to happen in the past, many people are not enthusiastic to get married and have opted to remain single or get into single parenthood. Even those who get married often experience marital problems such as domestic violence, financial strains, communication problems among others which have led to divorce and separation (Omondi & Kmonjo, 2015). However, this study sought to investigate university students’ perception of delayed marriage. The present study is a small attempt to throw light on the perception of female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage which to the knowledge of the researcher have received little scholastic attention in Kwara State. This is the gap which the present study aims at filling and perhaps constitutes the problem of the study.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage among women in Kwara state. Specifically, the study would investigate the following:
- perception of female undergraduates on the causes of delayed marriage
- differences in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage
- what is the perception of female undergraduates on the causes of delayed marriage?
- Is there any difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage?
In this study, the following null hypotheses would be formulated and tested
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage
The research was limited to only University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state. Two faculties were sampled for this study. These faculties include Faculties of Arts and Education. The female undergraduate students of the above faculties were randomly selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 50 female undergraduate students in every department. This has made the total of respondents to be 400. The content for this study was perception of female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage. Questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The questionnaire comprises two sections. Section A deals with respondents relevant bio-data. Section B is devoted to questionnaire items on the causes of delayed marriage. The expected responses in section B are structured in accordance with Likert scale of stongly agreed (SA), agreed (A), disagreed (D) and strongly disagreed (SD). The respondents are requested to select the option that best suit their perceptions. Also, the data collected were analysed through descriptive statistics.
Data Analysis and Result
The organization of the data analysis was based on the research questions raised and the hypotheses postulated for the study. The questionnaire was used to elicit information on the perception of female undergraduate students on the causes of delayed marriage among women in Kwara state. 400 filled questionnaires were collected and used. Frequency counts and percentage were used to describe the demographic data of the respondents and answer research question number 1 while research question number 2 has corresponding hypothesis and t-test statistics was used to test null hypothesis formulated for the study.
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
|Variables Frequency Percentage|
|single 340 87.5
married 60 12.5
|Total 400 100|
In the table1, out of the 400 female undergraduate respondents that were sampled, 340 (87.5%) were singles, while 60 (12.5%) were married.
Answering the Research Questions
- what is the perception of female undergraduates on the causes of delayed marriage?
To answer research question number 1, the responses to questionnaire items was analysed in accordance with the stems of the questionnaire.
Table 2: Responses on Home/Family Background as a Cause of Delayed Marriage
|CAUSES OF DELAYED MARRIAGE||SA||A||D||SD||Total|
|1||Ambition to show obedience to my parents makes ladies delay marriage||64||16.0||147||36.8||123||30.8||66||16.5||400||100|
|2||The experience of others like divorcee and adulterous relationship also cause single women not to marry on time||64||16.0||296||74.0||nil||nil||40||10.0||400||100|
|3||Some single ladies delay marriage as a result of their experience from their family background||26||6.5||351||87.8||23||5.8||Nil||nil||400||100|
|4||Parental principle makes single ladies delay marriage||22||5.5||317||79.3||61||15.3||Nil||Nil||400||100|
|5||Parental socio-economic status makes women delay marriage||21||5.3||147||36.8||212||53.0||20||5.0||400||100|
It could be seen from the table 2 that the higher percentage of the respondent subscribed positively to the items number 1 -4. While the number of those who disagreed with item number 5 is more than those who agreed. It could be deduced that the majority of the respondents supported the view that family background is among the causes of delayed marriage among women.
Table 3: Responses on Financial Factor as a Cause of Delayed Marriage
|CAUSES OF DELAYED MARRIAGE||SA||A||D||SD||Total|
|6||Delaying marriage is more enjoyable than early marriage||23||5.8||64||16.0||186||46.5||127||31.8||400||100|
|7||Fear of financial implication of marriage makes style women delay marriage||42||10.5||166||41.5||83||17.7||109||27.3||400||100|
|8||The aspirations to gather and save money in order to be financially state makes single women delay marriage||23||5.8||185||46.3||146||36.5||46||11.5||400||100|
|9||The aspirations to marry a wealthy or rich men makes single women delay marriage||2||.5||230||57.5||148||37.0||20||5.0||400||100|
|10||The desire to be self-reliant without necessarily in need of financial support from any man makes women delay marriage||41||8.7||148||37.0||144||36.0||67||16.8||400||100|
|11||The financial problem of parent is one of the causes of delaying marriage by single women.||40||10.0||195||48.8||125||31.3||40||10.0||400||100|
It could be seen from the table 3 that the higher percentage of the respondent disagreed with the item number 6 which stated that delaying marriage is more enjoyable than early marriage. 208 (52%) of the respondents agreed with the items number 7 and 8 respectively while, 192 (45%) disagreed with the items. Also, 232 (58%) agreed with the item number 9 while 168 (42%) disagreed with the item. 189 (45.7%) agreed with the item number 10 while 201 (54.3%) disagreed. Lastly, 235 (58.8%) agreed with the item number 11 while 165 (41.2%) disagreed.
It could be deduced here that it appeared there is no concession in the view of respondents on the fact that financial factor does cause single women to delay marriage. It could be concluded therefore, that majority of single ladies do not delay marriage on the ground of their financial status.
Table 4: Responses on Educational Factor as a Cause of Delayed Marriage
|CAUSES OF DELAYED MARRIAGE||SA||A||D||SD||Total|
|12||Desire to acquire a higher educational qualification before entering into a matrimonial home makes single women delay marriage||66||16.5||208||52.0||86||21.5||40||10.0||400||100|
|13||Educational ambitions contributes to single women delaying marriage||64||16.0||257||64.3||59||14.8||20||5.0||400||100|
|14||The influence of Education acquired makes single women to delay marriage||21||4.5||277||69.3||102||5.3||Nil||Nil||400||100|
|15||Looking for a soul mate who is a learned as a woman also cause a delayed marriage||21||4.5||272||68.0||87||21.8||20||4.3||400||100|
It could be seen from the table 4 that the higher percentage of the respondent agreed with the item number 12 which stated that desire to acquire a higher educational qualification before entering into a matrimonial home makes single women delay marriage. 321 (80.3%) of the respondents agreed with the item number 13 while, 291(73.8%) agreed with the item number 14. Also, 293 (72.5%) agreed with the item number 15.
It could be deduced here that most of the respondents subscribed to the fact that education serves as a major contributing factor prompting single ladies to delay marriage.
Table 5: Responses on Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors as Causes of Delayed Marriage
|CAUSES OF DELAYED MARRIAGE||SA||A||D||SD||Total|
|Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors||Freq.||%||Freq.||%||Freq.||%||Freq.||%||Freq.||%|
|16||Sometimes social maladies makes single woman to delay marriage||40||10.0||192||48.0||168||42.0||Nil||Nil||400||100|
|17||Desire to continue enjoying social acceptance which single ladies benefit make single women delay marriage||40||10.0||252||63.0||108||27.0||Nil||Nil||400||100|
|18||Desire for equal opportunity and respect in the society makes single women to delay marriage||61||15.3||173||43.3||146||36.5||20||5.0||400||100|
|19||Delaying marriage affords single women opportunity of leading a happy life without necessarily in need of any male support.||39||9.8||188||47.0||132||33.0||41||10.3||400||100|
|20||Perceiving marriage as a barrier to achieve in life leads single women to delay marriage||40||10.0||220||55.0||99||24.8||41||10.3||400||100|
|21||Sometimes, pass personal experience of human is the cause of delayed marriage||80||20.0||206||51.5||93||23.3||21||5.3||400||100|
|22||Anxiety of finding a suitable match makes single woman delay marriage||40||10.0||257||64.3||82||20.5||21||5.3||400||100|
|23||Fear of challenges embedded in matrimonial circles makes single women delay marriage||60||15.0||212||53.0||128||32.0||Nil||Nil||400||100|
|24||Fear of losing independence makes women delay marriage||40||10.0||143||35.8||197||49.3||20||5.0||400||100|
|25||Anxiety of becoming a victim of violence causes single women to delay marriage||29||7.3||162||40.5||166||41.5||43||10.8||400||100|
It could be seen from the table 5 that the higher percentage of the respondent agreed with the items number 16-23 while, the percentage of those who disagreed with items number 24 and 25 respectively is higher than those who agreed. Of all the 10 items on (Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors as Causes of Delayed Marriage), it is only the items number 24 and 25 that have higher number of the respondents that disagreed with them.
It could be deduced here that most of the respondents subscribed to the fact that (Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors as Causes of Delayed Marriage), serves as a major contributing factor inhibiting single ladies from getting married on time.
The null hypothesis formulated earlier was tested with the use of independent t-test at alpha level of 0.05.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage
Table 6: t-test difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage
|Variables||Frequency||Mean||SD||df||Cal. t value||Critical t-value||Remark|
Table 6 shows that the calculated t value is 1.823 while the critical value is 1.23 with 68 degree of freedom at alpha level of 0.05. Since the calculated t value is greater than the critical value, the null hypothesis 6 is hereby rejected. Therefore, there is significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage.
Summary of Major findings
From the data collected and analyzed in respect of this research work the flowing are the major findings:
- Family background is among the causes of delayed marriage among women.
- Majority of single ladies do not delay marriage on the ground of their financial status.
- Education serves as a major contributing factor prompting single ladies to delay marriage.
- (Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors as Causes of Delayed Marriage), serves as a major contributing factor inhibiting single ladies from getting married on time.
- There is significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage.
Discussion of Findings
It was revealed from the findings of the study that most of the respondents subscribed to the fact that family background is among the causes of delayed marriage among women. This finding tallies with the submission of Oderinde (2013) who noted that among the reasons for delay in marriage of some is because they have become so emotionally attached to their parents and find it difficult to break the home ties. Oderinde (2013) also revealed that the dysfunctional home life in which some young people are reared; some past sad experiences with the opposite sex which many have had; unpleasant childhood experiences such as rape or child abuse; most of the times create fear in them and make it difficult for them to make friendship with opposite gender.
Moreso, the findings of the study revealed that, majority of single ladies do not delay marriage on the ground of their financial status. This is however contrary to the views of Beri and Beri (2013) who submitted that one of the main reasons why women stay single is because women today are more driven to get the next promotion, become financially secure and to enjoy the fruits of their education and hard work. The implication here is that it would be difficult to generalize the fact that economic or financial factor drive ladies to delay marriage.
Also, the findings showed that education serves as a major contributing factor prompting single ladies to delay marriage. This agrees with the findings of Zwang (2013) who found that the main arguments favouring late marriage have to do with schooling. The outcome of this study is in line with the submission of Hervish and Feldman-Jacobs (2011) when they stressed that keeping girls in school and delaying marriage can increase income for individuals and boost economic development for nations. The result of this finding is also tallied with the findings of Beri and Beri (2013). They emphasized that the trend among women to wed later is closely related to education. The more education a woman has received, the more likely she is to delay marriage.
The findings also revealed that (Personal/Social/ Psychological Factors as Causes of Delayed Marriage), serves as a major contributing factor inhibiting single ladies from getting married on time. This finding is in concord with the submission of Beri and Beri (2013) when they noted that the modern woman sees a life that is wide open for her and one with many opportunities and possibilities .While she is not against marriage, she wants to succeed at her chosen career and she wants to be able to contribute to the overall wellbeing of a family,
including from a financial angles.
This finding also agree with submission of Martins (2002) who observed that people who delay marriage have ample time to select marriage partner of their choice thereby leading to a stable matrimony. It also tallies with the findings of Oderinde (2013) who noted that personal standard is another hindrance to early marriage.
The finding of this study also revealed that there is significant difference in the perception of married and unmarried female undergraduate students on causes of delayed marriage. It appeared that married female respondents are not favourably disposed to delayed marriage.
Conclusion and Recommendations
It was concluded based on the statistically backed findings of this study that family background, economic or financial factor, educational and psychological factors were perceived as causes of delayed marriage among women. In view of the results obtained and the conclusion reached from this research work, the following recommendations are made,
- There is need for proper orientation of females on importance and values of marriage. Most importantly, getting married on time
- There is need for inclusion of marriage education in the content of general studies curriculum. This would help in enlightening the female’s young adults the appropriate timing for marriage and get them acquainted with the scourge of delayed marriage.
- Parents should live by examples, create good and peaceful home atmosphere for wards, so that the children would not be brought up under chaotic environment that would create artificial phobia in going to matrimony when they become adults.
- There is need for provision of guidance and counselling for young adults most especially females, on how to make right selection of spouses.
- Government should champion provision of empowerment for fully matured young adults that are getting married. This would alley the fair of those that delay marriage for financial reasons.
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POOR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM A CAUSE FOR LEADERSHIP INEFFICIENCY: IMPLICATION FOR COUNSELLING
Dr. Abdul-Hameed Akorede ZAKARIYAH
Director Quality Assurance Unit
Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin
Prof. Adebayo Issah RAHEEM
Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin
Hussain Kehinde GARBA
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Baushi
Dr. Salihu Muhammad YAKUBU
Department of Educational Foundations,
Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State
Mahmood Suleiman JAMIU
Kwara State College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin
Education which is the best legacy a country can give to her citizens and as a means of development of any society and the youths who occupy significant positions in that country has face with a lot of challenges in Nigeria. Just as the physical and social development of the average child is beset with many problems, so the development of educational system in this country is hampered by variety of problems, some of which are associated with inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low staff morale, poor supervision of schools, frequent changes in policies and many more. These make the education system which supposed to be the ivory tower of citadel of learning now a breeding ground for hoodlums, cultists, drug abusers, rapists and prostitutions. Some of which were explained with counselling implication.
Nigeria a developing country with multi-ethnic, diverse cultural diversities of not less than 350 distinct ethnic groups and diverse indigenous languages with more than 160 million in population Igbuzor (2006) is being confronted with different challenges be it economic, social, political and educational one which has to be the focus of this work. Whereas all over the world, education is recognized as the cornerstone for sustainable national development (Oyitso & Olomukoro, 2012, as cited in Okemakinde, 2014). Education is the best legacy a country can give to her citizens. Igbuzor (2006) in stressing the importance of education, stated that education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely by reason of being human. Obani (1996) views that education improves the development of any society and the youths who occupy significant positions in that country should be properly educated in order to improve the society. Therefore, schools at various levels are expected to educate future leaders and develop the high level technical capacities needed for socio-economic growth and development of the nation (Osokoya, 2008).
An Appraisal of Nigeria Educational System
In the plight of this, Nigeria as a nation had witnessed a series of Educational Systems since its birth in 1914. Immediately after independence in Nigeria, there were lot of ills and shortcomings in Nigerian educational system as it was based on the British educational system which did not pave way for yearning needs, interests and aspirations of Nigerian society (Adeyemi, Oribabor & Adeyemi, 2012). This gave birth to 1969 curriculum conference that focused on Nigerian children in Nigerian society with series of changes in National Policies on Education such as in 1977, 1981, 1998 and 2004 respectively (FRN, 2004), all with the prime purpose of improving the quality of Nigerian Education. It is in recognition of the unique role of education that the Federal Republic of Nigeria, in her policy, adopted education as an instrument “par excellence” for effecting national development. But despite the government’s commitment to education, the quality of education in our schools has been declining tremendously (Adeyemi, Oriabor & Adeyemi, 2012). Just as the physical and social development of the average child is beset with many problems, so the development of educational system in Nigeria is hampered by a variety of problems, some of which are associated with the responsibility for and control of the society’s education, the diversification of the educational system, the need to relate the schools’ curricula to national man-power needs, and the society’s economy (Daramola, 2005). All these problems are retarding the pace of educational development in Nigeria today, therefore, turned the Nigeria youths who are to be the future leaders to nuisances, thereby giving successive governments and educational stake holders’ serious concern. Among the challenges confronting the Nigeria Educational System include the following:
Inadequate funding: Inadequate funding is one of the obstacles to effective management of educational systems in the country. According to Aghenta (1984), the success of any educational levels depends upon the resources available to it. Money is very important in this respect because by it, all other vital elements in the school can be obtained, such as school building, purchase of equipment, payment of teachers’ salaries and allowances and running expenses. Meanwhile, Jaiyeoba and Atanda (2003) explained that the rapid expansion of students’ enrolment in Nigeria since the attainment of independence followed by the enrolment explosion in recent years have made education a thorny responsibility for government to shoulder. Hence inadequate funding has resulted in poor teaching and dilapidated buildings (Omoregie, 2005). There is no doubt whatsoever, that the inadequate funding of the school system in the country has hindered the accomplishment of some of the aims and objectives of education as contained in the National Policy on Education.
Inadequate facilities: School facilities are the material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in schools. Jaiyeoba and Atanda (2005) posited that educational facilities are those things which enable a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided.
The state of infrastructural decay in many schools in Nigeria be it primary, secondary or at tertiary level is a manifestation of poor funding of the system. Ahmed (2003) revealed that in most of the nation’s schools, teaching and learning takes place under a most un-conducive environment, lacking the basic materials and thus hinder the fulfillment of educational objectives.
Low staff morale: Teachers are the centre-piece of any educational system. No education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Teachers whose morale is low are not likely to perform as expected in the school system. According to Ajayi and Oguntoye (2003), the numerous problems permeating the entire educational system in Nigeria such as cultism, examination malpractices, drug abuse, indiscipline, persistent poor academic performance of students in public examinations and many more seem to suggest that teachers have not been performing their job as expected. Fadipe (2003) posited that teachers, apart from students, are the largest most crucial inputs of an educational system. They influence to a great extent the quality of the educational output. Teachers’ irregular promotion, low pay package (when compared to other public workers), societal perception of the job and many more have dampened the morale of teachers. When teachers are not motivated, their level of job commitment may be low and the objectives of the school may not be accomplished.
Poor supervision of schools: Effective instructional delivery and maintenance of standards in the school system are enhanced through regular internal and external supervision. Ajayi and Ayodele (2003) argued that both primary and secondary schools are presently supervised by two categories of people, viz: (i) internal supervisors—the within-the school supervisors as head teachers/principals, their deputies and heads of departments; (ii) external supervisors—the outside-the school supervisors who are formally designated officials from the Inspectorate division of the Ministry of Education and the various Area or Zonal Education Offices such as quality assurance commission and others. The primary responsibility of inspectors is to see that high standards are maintained and that schools are run in accordance with the laid down regulations. While it has been argued that the principals have been discharging their duties as internal supervisors, the external supervisors (inspectors from the Ministry of Education) appear non-functional as they seldom visit schools to monitor the operations in these schools. This has invariably hindered effective teaching-learning in schools.
Frequent changes in policies: The term “policy” can be explained as statement, which expresses goals, and the means of achieving them. Policy provides a road-map for actions tailored towards meeting specific goals. According to Jaiyeoba and Atanda (2005), education policy represents definite courses of action proposed by the government in power or an executive authority and adopted as expedient to the issues the problems is that of education policies, which may take the form of ordinance, code or even an act have been observed to change with changes in the political leadership of Nigeria. Principals of schools are often caught in this web when government changes existing education policy. The inconsistencies in educational policies have been argued to be responsible for the poor service delivery in the system (Ekundayo, 2011).
Parenting /Guardian factor: Parenting, entails caring, protection, guidance, provision of basic needs for a child up keep in order for him or her to be properly equipped to meet with the challenges of life, in accordance with the laws of the land (Odia, & Omofonmwan, 2007). In desperation, many parents have decided to bring in additional innovation by way of not only involve in encouraging, but also finance activities in and around examination venues to effect malpractices in order to brighten the chances of their children or wards in qualifying examination to higher institutions and some even progress on this act through the tertiary level of education. The interview carried out by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007) with two sets of university students from various departments engaged in clustered group discussion revealed that their parents influence over their choice course of study has negative effect on their level of performance.
Poverty: Acquisition of Education knowledge is supposed to help us fight against-poverty, ignorance and disease. The process of acquiring this well desired knowledge has gradually turned money spinning venture for many of those in dire need of the knowledge and skill. It is now a source of exploitation from the service seekers with little or no consideration for quality of service rendered and facilities on ground, and made an offer for the highest bidder. A trend which has cut across all levels of education, from nursery school to tertiary institutions. The concept, “poverty”, refers to a situation and process of serious deprivation or lack of resources and materials necessary for living within a minimum standard conducive for human dignity and wellbeing (NEST, 1992, as cited in Odia, & Omofonmwan, 2007). Admission and being in school today is merely an ability to pay what is demanded in monetary terms by school operators and not on what could be offered academically. And this in essence widens the scope of poverty prevalence as well as the gap between the rich and the poor which education is designed to bridge. Little wonder why graduates from many of the institutions exhibits ignorance towards societal realities and lack of creativity, due to the inadequacies associated with the learning and training process which is also observed to be partly because many of those that offer this service do so with greed (Odia, & Omofonmwan, 2007).
Poor Educational System a Cause for Leadership Inefficiency
Due to all these problems, the education system that once looks upon as the ivory tower of citadel of learning has now been clouded with immorality, then turned to breeding ground for hoodlums, cultists, drug abusers, rapists and prostitutions just to mention but few. Among the problems emanated from there are:
Today, Nigeria newspapers and magazines are replete with stories of fraud, crookery, cheating and various kinds of examination malpractices at all level of the country’s educational system (Adeyinka, 2007). Examination malpractices are defined by Jekayinfa (2007c.) as all illegal means adopted by students in passing examination either within or outside the examination hall. It can be taken to mean cheating, crookery, or fraud. It is a fraudulent, illegal or crooked way of obtaining success or high grade in examinations, assessments or evaluation of students. All these illegal means are directed toward achieving success in examination.
On the causes of examination malpractices Ojiah (2003), Ibrahim (2003) and Jekayinfa (2007c.) itemize the following:
- Too much emphasis on paper qualification
- Fear of failure
- Inordinate ambition of the students
- General moral laxity in the society
- Poor supervision and poor sitting arrangement during examination
- Student bad habit and poor study skill
- Student week background and attempt to win social honour
- Urge to meet parental high expectation
- Incessant strike of the teachers that disrupt the academic calendar
- Students/teachers unholy alliance
- Higher institution admission demand
- Rising cost of education or school fees
- Accessibility to question papers
On types of examination malpractices WAEC (1991) as cited in Jekayinfa (2007c.) lists twelve perfect methods of examination malpractices as, bullet and missiles, dubbing, tattoo, wailkie talkie, computer, giraffing, super print, ecowas, microchips, of impersonation, machinery, expo and handsets. With the prevalence of examination malpractices, the purpose of exam which is to test the ability of the testee and ascertain the reliability of examination results is now in doubt. It places the education and evaluation on a very precarious foundation and creates a picture of a nation growing on falsehood and give room for incompetent students to earn certificate and grade that they do not merit (Zakariyah, 2009).
The menace of secret cult in Nigeria educational institutions is another effect of poor educational systems. The educational institutions which are supposed to be citadel of knowledge for future leaders now serve as breeding ground of cultists. Cultism is a social menace which is not limited to higher institutions alone but a common phenomenon characterizing the entire society where secondary and primary schools are not left behind (Jekayinfa, 2007a.). Secret cult is a close association, guilds, cult group with close membership. It is a fraternity established by a conjunction of purposeful intention with a view of achieving specific ends. It is an association kept absolutely secret from general public and member who violates the tenets are bound to face severe consequence (Adeniyi, 2003). Historically, cultism in Nigeria institution date back to 1952 with pirate confraternity founded by Professor Wole Soyinka and others to fight colonisation, ensure dignity of man and to get rid of ethnicity, racism, tribalism, victimization and inequality. Then their presence and good conducts were felt in all nook and crannies of society to the extent that University of Ibadan registered them as students’ confraternity (Jimoh, 2006 & Jekayinfa, 2007a.). But now a day, it has become dreaded with different names and signs. Now with the proliferation of cults within the universities and other educational institutions there came rivalry among the cults which usually lead to violence, maiming, killing and other social vices in the society. Some of these cult groups are: Black Axe, Eye Confraternity, Mafia Nationalist, Maphite, Black Beret, Green Beret, Scorpion, and Black Cat just to mention view.
There are various reasons for students’ involvement in cults. Anubalueze (2006) enumerated the causes of students’ participation in cult activities to include poverty, inferiority complex, greedy, lack of home training, laziness, peer group influence, quest for unknown, rebellion against parents and defective societal value.
Drug can be defined as any chemical substance, which when used, affects the body and mind by changing the body’s function/or behaviour of the user. Drug abuse may be defined as the “arbitrary” over dependence or miss-use of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. Drug abuse, according to Ajayi and Ayodele (2003), is the wrong use or inappropriate use of chemical substances that are capable of changing functions of cells in the body. Haladu (2003) explained the term drug abuse as excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns. It could also be viewed as the use of a drug to the extent that it interferes with the health and social function of an individual.
Types of Abused Drugs
Ajake, Isangedihi and Bisong (2009) identified dangerous drugs like cocaine, Indian hemp (marijuana), morphine, heroin, tobacco, ephedrine, valium five and Chinese capsules as few among the drugs commonly abused by youths. In Nigeria, the most common types of abused drugs according to Haladu (2003) as cited in Fareo (2012) are categorized as follows:-
- Stimulants: These are substances that directly act and stimulate the central nervous system. Users at the initial stage experience pleasant effects such as energy increase. The major source of these comes from caffeine substance.
- Hallucinogens: These are drugs that alter the sensory processing unit in the brain. Thereby, producing distorted perception, feeling of anxiety and euphoria, sadness and inner joy, they normally come from marijuana, LSD, etc.
- Narcotics: These drugs relive pains, induce sleeping and they are addictive. They are found in heroin, codeine, opium, etc.
- Sedatives: These drugs are among the most widely used and abused. This is largely due to the belief that they relieve stress and anxiety, and some of them induce sleep, ease tension, cause relaxation or help users to forget their problems. They are sourced from valium, alcohol, promethazine, chloroform, etc.
- Miscellaneous: This is a group of volatile solvents or inhalants that provide euphoria, emotional disinhibiting and perpetual distortion of thought to the user. The main sources are glues, spot removers, tube repair, perfumes, chemicals, etc.
- Tranquilizers: They are believed to produce calmness without bringing drowsiness; they are chiefly derived from Librium, Valium, etc.
On the prevalence of drug abuse, Chikere and Mayowa (2011) found that in a number of school and college surveys in Nigeria, use of alcohol is the most common among students, with many drinking students having had their first drink in family settings. They also discovered that the majority of students affected were initiated into the use of alcohol at a tender age of 10-20 years. Abudu (2008) claimed that experiment with drugs during adolescence (11 – 25 years) is common because at this age, they try so many new things. He explained further that in one of the WHO’s and the World Heart Foundation’s data, it was founded that in Nigeria, 22.1% of school youth age between 12 to 17 years smoke tobacco. Young ones who are mainly from well-to-do homes are increasingly identifying with the “big boys” sub-culture that practice the use of substances like heroin and cocaine. Others substances like Indian hemp, which is frequently produced in Nigeria and other substances like methamphetamine, syrups and tablets with codeine capable of intoxicating are mostly found in schools, motor parks, military barracks and even with local traders that sell provisions in kiosks or retail outlets.
From the above findings, Abudu (2008) summarised the followings as responsible factors:
- Parental neglects of their children
- The prevalence of drugs in the community
- Pathological family background – broken homes, illegitimate relationships, alcoholic parents or parent’s involvement in antisocial and illegal activities.
- Peer influence
- Imitation of film stars and teenage idols
- Media adverts – Radio, TV, Billboard inter
- Urbanization and unemployment
- Ignorance of the dangers of illegal drug use
- Alienation – they feel isolated and want to belong etc. (Abudu 2006).
Apart from the various effects already highlighted above. It is not out of point to add that the various consequences of drug addiction or drug abuse are so devastating and very shameful to the extent that both the nation and international organizations all over the world are also worried about the spread of this scourge among the youths. They are as follows: Mental disorder, social violence, gang formation, cultism, armed robbery 419 syndrome, internet frauds, social miscreants (area boys and girls) lawlessness among youths, lack of respect for elders, rape, loss of senses, instant death and wasting of precious and innocent lives and many more (Jekayinfa, 2007b.).
Students’ Prostitution and Pre-Marital Sex
Prostitution is an act of having illicit sexual intercourse or relationship with the same or opposite sex either for money or for pleasure. Sexual prostitution is most common with female students, which have become a money-making venture business for them, with act of using what you have to get what you want in campus. Though, in most cases, some students involve in such act may be due to economic factors like poverty, unemployment and underemployment, high cost of living, high cost of school fees and school expenses (John, 2010), other social factors can be responsible. They include bad company, lack of sexual education at home, lecturer and student intimidation and harassment and student’s quest for higher grade in examination. These result to lose of moral and social value among Nigeria youth who are to become the leader of tomorrow (John, 2010).
Counselling strategies refers to an interaction between the client and the counsellor where the counsellor assumes the position of assisting, directing, guiding, helping or mentoring the client in solving the client’s personal, interpersonal, educational, vocational problems. Counselling may involve individual or group, depending on situations and circumstances prevailing (Iwuama & Ekwe, 2012). Since leadership inefficiency irrespective of its typology are by product of poor educational system in our country and adversely affects socio-economic, religious, moral, intellectual and political lives of citizens, counselling strategies (skills and techniques) are therefore important instruments to be adopted to avert the act of immoral and social vices indulged by youths (Igbo & Ikpa, 2013; Usman, 2013). Some of the counselling strategies include:
Attitude Change: Attitude, according to Mukharjee (2002), refers to one’s feelings, thoughts, and predisposition to behave in some particular manner towards some aspects of one’s environment. (Mukharjee, 2002) suggested that for one to change others attitude, four factors must come in to play including, (a) credibility of the resource person or counsellor (b) nature of appeals or message (preaching or counselling) (c) organization of the messages to be delivered to people involved in immoral acts (this needs competent and professional counsellor’s intervention who can use techniques and skills in counselling. (d) Relative commitment in one’s attitude in terms of religious sacrifice or financial inducement or motivation for the act.
Behaviour Modification skills: these behavior modification skills could also be useful in curbing leadership inefficiency among our youth. As professionals, guidance counsellors should work towards restructuring negative views held by youths which necessitate for all aforementioned undesirable behaviours maneuver their ways in to poor educational system and ever lacking academic institutions in the country could only be modified to more rational ways if appropriate information is given to them. The learning of Skinner shows how positive reinforcement increases the probability of an operant, and how extinctions can be introduced for the adoption of withdrawal of positive reinforcement. This strategy is used to change behaviour or attitude. Others include, modeling, imitation, aversion therapy and self-control.
Information service in counselling: Through this service, the guidance counsellor may help the youths to acquire knowledge which they are ignorant of. Such information could liberate them from falsehood and misconceptions being provided by peers and adults who initiate them in to these social vices. Youths also need information that will get them educationally developed. Hence the guidance counsellor gives them educational information that will help them develop skills that can sustain them academically. Such information liberates them from psychological and mental torture they pass through in acts of immoralities.
Entrepreneurial Counselling: Youths also need information that will get them economically empowered. Hence the guidance counsellor gives them vocational and entrepreneurial information that will help them develop skills that can sustain them economically. This is to afford the youths with vocational skills in schools and in communities so as to be self-employed and self-reliant. Loans can be given for investment (Koech & Osodo, 2016).
Individual/Group Counselling: Individual and group counselling of youths in school and non-school settings could also be very helpful. Professional guidance counsellors could organize workshops, talk shows, and seminars for youths in schools, youth organizations and youths in religious settings. Youths need to be counselled that the future belongs to them and they should not be used to destroy it and through proper education alone they can make it. Topics on moral and citizenship education, patriotism, rule of law could be incorporated in such sessions. Such may help them understand better the societal proper values and their roles in the society. Such counselling sessions could also be extended to the political leaders at various levels of government and education stake holders. Seminars and workshops could be organized for them on good governance and importance of adequate founding and standardization of educational systems in Nigeria.
Sensitization: This is to create awareness to the Government, parent/ guardians, religious leaders and youths, by emphasizing the importance of standardizing our educational systems in Nigeria at all levels and inculcate the spirit of effective and good citizenship and de-emphasizing various immoral behaviours and vices. This could be done through advocacy campaigns by the use of mass media (Igbo & Ikpa, 2013; Usman, 2013).
Educational system which is to be the nation’s hope for the production of high level man power needs of the country are now being bastardize with variety of problems. Educational system can only be productive if there is effective and efficient management of human and material resources in the system by the educational stake holders. This paper thus examined the outputs from the educational system in Nigeria and concluded that they were of poor quality and has turned the Nigeria youths who are to be the future leaders to nuisances especially those who engage in all social and moral vices. The poor quality, however, had been linked with the numerous problems bedeviling the system, such as inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low morale of staff, poor supervision of schools and frequent changes in policies. Therefore, counselling strategies were used to modify the immoral behaviours among these youths as well as sensitize the government and stake holders on how to take education as a apriority, and standardize our educational system for leadership efficiency and sustainable development.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER EDUCATION TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN NIGERIAN UPPER BASIC SCHOOLS
Emmanuel A. OYEDUN
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin
The goal of any curriculum is to be delivered and it is a well-known fact that effective curriculum delivery involves the learner, the teacher, the resources, the methods of teaching and evaluation, all of which are the direct products of effective teacher education programmes. This paper, therefore, examines the factor of teacher education in the implementation of the Basic Science and technology curricula. Although commendable efforts have been made by putting in place various teacher education programmes, yet much needs to be desired in terms of entry qualification to the Teacher Training Colleges, Products of the Colleges of Education, Teachers Development Programmes and inequality in the provision of teachers. The way forward in solving the problems were proffered.
Education is a major tool for national socio-economic development and for individual socio-economic empowerment and poverty reduction. However, a major challenge for the educational system in Nigeria is the production of qualified teachers to teach at various levels of the educational system in sufficient numbers.
Concerns have always been expressed about the quality of the graduates of Colleges of Education and universities, and there has been also a decline in the quality of candidates being admitted into these institutions. This is as a result of the combination of poor quality output from primary and secondary school levels, and also problems of examination malpractice which makes it possible for underserving candidates who are neither prepared for University education nor amenable to learning to secure admission into tertiary institutions.
Upon the introduction of the 9 – year Basic Education Programme by the Federal Government, there was the need to review, re-structure and re-plan the existing curricula for primary and junior secondary schools to fit into the new programme. As a result, the new basic science and technology curriculum emerged. It therefore becomes necessary for the nation to reposition its various teacher education programmes so that quality, committed and motivated teachers are produced that can effectively implement the new curriculum. It is only by so doing that the noble objectives of the basic science and technology education can be realized or attained.
History of Teacher Education in Nigeria
The development of Teacher Education in Nigeria runs closely parallel to the development of schools and indeed, to that of the society concerned. Studies have shown that it was the missionaries who established the first training Institution in Nigeria in 1895; the Hope-Waddel Training Institute, which was established in Calabar, followed by St. Andrew’s College Oyo in 1896, established by the Church Missionary Society (CMS). The purpose was to train people for service with CMS Mission.
The colonial administration became more involved in teacher training when it established Baptist Training College Ogbomoso in 1897, St. Paul’s Training College Awka in 1904, and the Wesleyan Training Institute, Ibadan in 1905, then one teacher training institution was established in Bonny in 1914. Others are the United Missionary College in Ibadan in 1928 and St. Charles Training College, Onisha in 1929. In the Northern Part of Nigeria, one was established in 1909 at Nasarawa and another in 1921 at Katsina. By 1960 when Nigeria attained her independence, many teacher training institutions had been established by the Christian Missionary agencies to produce Elementary Teachers (Grade III) and Higher Elementary Teachers’ Certificate (Grade II) (Adesina 2004:179).
Following the Ashby report of 1960, which was set up for post-school Certificate and Higher Education, Advanced Training Colleges (Now Colleges of Education) were established as from 1962 to produce well-qualified non-graduate teachers to teach lower classes in the secondary schools. The University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) started an experimental B.A and B.Sc. degrees in Education in 1960 before many other universities followed suit. Also, for graduate teachers who did not read education, there is postgraduate in Education (PGDE) through which such teachers are groomed to attain both academic and professional competence in education. It was the missionaries who set the professional standard for teachers and for the curriculum to be taught in schools.
Today, however, many teacher education programmes have been established in Nigerian Institutions with the hope of producing various categories of teachers ranging from primary to the University. By the same token, various policies legalizing the professional recognition of teachers has been passed.
Concept of Basic Education
The term Basic Education was articulated by the Jomtien World Conference on Education for all in 1990, and re-affirmed by the Dakar EFA Forum in 2000 (Obanya, 2002).
Basic Education for children, youths and adults are targeted at meeting one’s basic learning needs, which can be met in various settings such as home, community, school, workplace, mass media and everyday life activities. These learning needs can be provided by various agencies wether public, private, non-governmental, communal etc. It can be accomplished through various means, including formal, informal and non-formal education training, self-directed and experimental learning, making use of both traditional and modern media, face-to- face and distance modalities.
The process continues throughout life and not just a specific period in the life of an individual because basic learning needs are numerous, they change over time and must be updated as realities and knowledge also evolved (Obanya, 2004:61). Accordingly, basic education is not synonymous with schooling neither is it a question of the length and the amount of schooling. Basic education is thus usually seen as the first phase of a life of learning while its goal is laying a solid foundation for lifelong learning.
It can be seen that basic education embraces all kinds of basic knowledge and skills that are necessary for an individual to improve the quality of a useful and contented life so that the individual can continue to learn. Basic Education is considered the key bridge to the future. It aims at the empowerment of the citizenry to acquire skills and knowledge that would prepare them for the world of work. In order to achieve this, it must address the following crucial issues:-
- Review of school curricula from primary to tertiary, to incorporate vocational and entrepreneurial skills.
- Re-tooling and repositioning of technical schools to be able to address the technical manpower needs of the economy.
- Establishment of more vocational centres to encourage Nigerians to embrace vocational education.
- Review of school curricula at all levels to incorporate the study of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
The New Basic Education Curriculum Structure was approved by the National Council on Education (NCE) in December, 2005.
What is Teaching and why do People Teach?
Teaching is the process of influencing or manipulating the experiences of other people in order to modify their behaviours to an acceptable standard in the society. Skinner (1965), defined teaching as an “arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement under which behaviour changes”. Various definitions can be given to the term “teaching”. Some people may define teaching as an act of trying to solve the learners’ problems, or the ability to impact knowledge or information. Others may define teaching as the ability to make things known, to impact skills or transfer instruction. But an examination of all these definitions show that while the term is being defined, there is no clue as to the procedure to be followed in achieving the objective of a given instruction.
Since the primary aim of education is to make people grow and develop, it becomes the responsibility of every educator to find out the most effective way or method of nurturing this growth. Thus, the concept of teaching methodology and of teacher functions in the classroom provides us with a closer clue to the process.
Having said so much about what teaching is, it is necessary to find out why some people choose to teach. People are motivated to go into teaching for various reasons. Some people claim that it is a noble profession which helps them to render services to the society. Others feel that teaching is academically challenging and thus give them the opportunity to be current to become more learned and to share their knowledge and experience with other people. Other reasons include; to be of exemplary character to the young ones; to face mental challenges in life; to be independent and creative.
At the same time it should be remembered that some people go into teaching not because of interest they have in the profession but because it is about the only profession available to them hence, they use it as a stepping stone to other professions of their choice.
A close look at the above reasons clearly show the various categories of people in the teaching profession. Such people according to Fafunwa (1967) can be classified as follows;
- Those who are convinced that teaching is their calling and that they can best serve their country in that capacity.
- Those who choose teaching and find satisfaction in it as compared with other occupations.
- Those who cannot make good elsewhere, but because they have minimum academic qualification required joined the teaching profession rather than from choice; and
- Those who have had secondary education, but have been disqualified for further studies because of poor academic record.
While the above observations are generally true, it must be noted that a greater majority of the people would go into teaching for the purpose of influencing both young and old; and most especially because of meaningful contribution they can make through teaching for the purpose of meeting tomorrow’s challenges in a developing nation.
The Basic Science and Technology Curriculum
The word curriculum has been defined variously by various scholars, depending on their interpretation of education and the various functions schools should perform to the individual and to the society at large. Tanner and Tanner (1980), defined curriculum as a planned and guided learning outcomes formulated through a systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences under the auspices of a school for learners. This implies that the curriculum must be in written document and must be carefully planned and guided by a teacher.
Onwuka (1984), defined curriculum as a structured series of intended learning experiences and the instrument by which educational instructions seek to translate the hope of the society into concrete reality, it is the sum total of the means applied by instruction of learning to promote what society and educators consider as desirable. Bishop (1985) viewed curriculum as all the learning experiences which are planned and guided by the school, whether carried out in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. Offorma (2005) regarded curriculum as the process of determining and pursuing set societal objectives through the instrumentality of the school. Offorma further explained that curriculum is the totality of the environment in which education takes place.
The Basic Science and Technology Curriculum according to Adeniyi (2007), is the product of re-alignment and restructuring of the revised curricula for primary science and junior secondary Integrated Science. In selecting the contents, three major issues shaping the development of nations worldwide, and influencing the world of knowledge today, were identified. These are globalization, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and entrepreneurship education. Also, some Introductory Technology topics have been introduced at the lower and middle levels, while leaving the upper level with purely science topics.
Objectives of the Curriculum
The overall objectives of the Basics Science and Technology Curriculum outlined by Adeniyi (2007) are to enable the learners to;
- Develop interest in science and technology
- Acquire basic skills in science and technology
- Apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs.
- Take advantage of the numerous career opportunities offered by science and technology; and
- Become prepared for further studies in science and technology.
In order to achieve a holistic presentation of science and technology contents to learners, the thematic approach to content organization was adopted. Consequently, four themes were used to cover knowledge, skills and attitudinal requirements. These are;
- You and Environment
- Living and Non-living things
- You and Technology
- You and Energy
At the Upper Basic level, however, theme 3 “You and Technology” was changed to “Science and Development”. The topics under each theme were sequenced in spiral form, beginning with the simple to complex across the 9 – year Basic Education in order to sustain the interest of learners and promote learning by doing and skills development. The theme “Science and development” was added to expose students to developments in science and technology alongside skills that will enable them to face challenges, make informed decisions, develop survival strategies and learn to live effectively within the global community.
The new Basic Science and Technology Curriculum can be said to be carefully planned, well written and documented having all it entails to bring socioeconomic development through the achievement of the MDGs and the critical elements of NEEDS. However, the workability of any curriculum depends on its effective implementation, which involves the learner, the teacher the resources and the methods of teaching; these inturn revolve around the quality and nature of Teacher Education the nation is able to put in place. Therefore the issue of teacher education is very paramount to the effective implementation of Basic Science and Technology Curriculum.
Teacher Education and Effective Implementation of Basic Science and Technology Curriculum
It is the general belief that the competence of teachers is central to the education of children. In a way, therefore, what constitutes competence in teaching is intimately connected with the type of teacher education programmes available for preparing school teachers. It is not enough to fill our classrooms with just anybody that has passed through a teacher’s college or the university. High quality teacher preparation is necessary for all categories of school teachers so that they will be able to help us achieve the aspirations we hold for our children, by being able to implement effectively the basic education curriculum, especially, the basic science and technology curriculum.
Taiwo (1982), was of the view that one of the problems of teacher education for Nigerian schools is the poor quality of teachers produced from the Teachers’ Colleges. The Nigerian Certificate in Education has now become the minimum teaching qualification in the country. This implies that no primary school teacher in Nigeria is expected to possess a teaching qualification lower than the NCE. In order to achieve this, the number of Colleges of Education has risen from only six in 1976 to about 72 in 2007 (Akinbote, 1999). This had led to a mass production of NCE teachers for both primary and secondary levels of education.
There is, however, the general concern that the quality of teachers we produce from our teacher training institutions may not be able to effectively implement the new Basic Science and Technology Curriculum. According to Ogunsaju (1996), in order to meet the demand of teachers through unexpected expansion, a lot of unqualified people were drafted into teaching profession and given shoddy training which eventually led to poor teaching. Ogunsaju noted that today, in most states of Nigeria, the number of unqualified teachers in our schools is disturbingly high.
There is a popular saying that, as the school so is the society, and as the teacher, so is the school (Ukeje, 1996). This implies that the teacher is the most important manpower needed to develop other manpower in any society. To be able to implement the basic science and technology curriculum, the best brains should be attracted into teaching to help in the education process. Yoloye (1998), observed that “what is happening in the education sector is almost a disaster as majority of the products of our primary schools are neither sufficiently literate nor numerate to be useful to themselves and the society”. The situation has not significantly improved since then.
Akinbote (2007), found that student teachers found their ways into Colleges of Education because there were no other institutions that could offer them admission. He also found that only few of the student teachers enter the Colleges of Education with the required entry qualifications. This implies that the original plan to have only the good products of our secondary schools admitted into the colleges has not been met. Therefore there is the need for our teacher education programmes for basic science and technology education to be repositioned to meet the demands of teaching in which learners take greater ownership of their own learning. A reluctant, leftover, not good for anything or half-baked teachers will not take us to the promised land. The great aspiration we hold for our children and the future of the country will only be made possible with competent, effective and dedicated science and technology teachers.
To achieve the above the type of teacher education we provide must address some basic issues which include (i) Appropriate teacher qualification, adequacy and professional development and (ii) Inequality in Provision of Teachers.
(i) Teacher Qualification, Adequacy and Professional Development
The National Policy on Education clearly spelt out that the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) is the minimum teaching qualification for the UBE Programme (Federal Republic of Nigeria; 2004). However, the Federal Government mandated the National Teacher Institute (NTI) to produce adequate pivotal teachers under the Pivotal Teacher Training Programme (PTTP), in preparation for the JIBE Programme (UBE, 2002; Tahir, 2006). This had happened while many NCE graduates are unemployed all over the country (Bakie, 2002).
On the other hand, the UBE programme provided for the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of the in-service teachers in an effort to provide an on-the-job training and retraining for the teachers in the programme where educational consultations are to be engaged by the state Universal Basic Education Boards (SUBEB). Some state agencies, however, resorted to contracting of incompetent consultants in total disregard for the quality and relevance of training provided to teachers (Tahir, 2006). Part of the reasons for such abuse as further disclosed by Tahir was the absence of a coherent and articulate policy framework for teacher recruitment and professional development, and unless this is adequately addressed, implementing the Basic Science and Technology Curricula effectively may suffer serious setback
(ii) Inequality in Provision of Teachers
Edho (2006), observed that most teachers posted to rural areas reject their postings as they prefer to stay in urban areas. This has led to inequality in the provision of teachers with the quality ones concentrating in the urban areas, leaving the rural areas with inadequate and unqualified teachers which in turn results in better teaching in the urban areas and poor teaching in the rural areas. The inequality in educational provision results in dire consequences such as rural-urban drift.
Poor Curriculum Delivery
The sum total of the problems arising from teacher qualification, inadequacy of teachers, inequality in the provision of teachers and professional development will undoubtedly result in poor curriculum delivery. Basic science and technology education is supposed to be both practical and academic (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). However, the near absence of resources both human and material for science and technical education, especially qualified science and technology teachers to impart the knowledge has made the teaching of basic science and technology grossly inadequate thereby, making the realization of the noble objectives of the Basic Science and Technology education almost unattainable. Lack of Laboratories and workshops and inadequate personnel and resources has led to an undue emphasis in examination as an instrument for assessment rather than practical skills (Bakie, 2002). This amounts to poor delivery of the curriculum and it jeopardizes the drive to develop students’ interest in Science and Technology and to acquire basic skills in Science and technology.
The Way Forward
The essence of teacher education should be the production of intellectually and prfessional1y committed teachers; production of highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers. Therefore, as a result of the increasing demand for qualified and efficient teachers, Colleges of Education should be adequately funded and staffed to produce enough and competent science and technology education teachers.
- Basic Science and Technology teachers should be given the opportunity to develop themselves professionally through’ regular attendance of workshops, seminars and conferences to enable them update their teaching skills and also get access to up-to-date information necessary to meet up the curriculum demands.
- Job remuneration and working conditions of teachers in general and Basic Science and Technology teachers in particular should be significantly improved in order to enhance professional image of the teaching profession, thereby, attracting intellectually and more endowed persons to train as UBE teachers.
- Recruitment of teachers and other personnel should be based on merit and not on any sectarian consideration, if the Basic Science and Technology Curriculum is to be implemented effectively.
The Basic science and technology curricular has all it takes to provide learners with basic scientific literacy as well as basic skills in science and technology that will enable them live effectively within the global community.
Furthermore, it will help in grooming pupils that will develop interest in learning science in the senior secondary classes and beyond, thereby, producing scientists and technologists for the nation. However, the curriculum implementation is confronted with serious defects in the Nation’s handling of teacher education. These include admission of unqualified candidates into Teachers’ Colleges, Poor graduates of Colleges of Education, inadequate teacher development programmes and inequality in the provision of teachers, among others. These challenges must be addressed by admitting only qualified candidates to teacher training colleges, efficient Teacher Development Programmes must be provided and rural teachers should be motivated to stop or minimize the rural-urban drift of teachers.
Adeniyi, E. O. (2007). 9 – Year Basic Science and Technology Curriculum Development Centre, NERDC, Abuja.
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Akinbote, O. (1999). Teacher Education Programme for Nigeria Primary Schools; Expectation for the 21st Century in Abimbade, A. (Ed) Teaching and Teacher Preparation in the 21st Century: Ibadan: Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Bakie, A. (2002). Recurrent Issues in Nigerian Education. Zaria: Tamaza Publication Co. Ltd.
Bishop, G. (1985). Alternative Strategies for Education. London: Macmillan Publishers.
Edho, O.G. (2009). The Challenges Affecting the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences 20 (3): 183-187.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education (4th Edition).
Obanya, P. (2006). “Teaching without Teachers”, 24th Distinguished Lecture Series Held at Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto-Ijanikin, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Tahir, G. (2006). The UBE Programme: Issues and Challenges and Implication for Teacher Education Institutions. Convocation Lecture Delivered at Federal College of Education, Kano.
Taiwo, C.O. (1982). The Nigerian Education System; Past, Present and Future. Ikeja: Thomas Nelson Nigeria Ltd.
Tanner, D. and Tanner, L. (1980). Curriculum Theory into Practice. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
U.B.E (2002). Information on UBE. Research and Publication Unit, UBEC, Abuja.
Ukeje, B.O. (1996). The Role of Colleges of Education in National Development: Past, Present and Future. Convocation Lecture, Federal College of Education, Kotangora, Nigeria.
Yoloye, E.A. (1998). Teacher Preparation for Primary School: The Challenges Ahead. 1st Convocation Lecture, Lagos State College of Primary Education, Nofonja-Epe, Nigeria.
Islam and its Polemics: An Examination of Controversial Issues in Ṣahīh Bukhārī among the Contemporary ‘Ulamā in Ilorin
Isiaka Olalekan ABDULRAHEEEM
Department of Islamic Studies
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education
In any society where human beings exist, Muslims not left out, there is bound to be disagreement on issues or the other. The disagreement may be for the purpose of religious or mundane matter. The Muslim ʽulamā nowadays see disagreement as a common thing due to their different perspectives about some Islamic perspectives. In Ilorin, this phenomenon has been in existence among the ʽulamā since 80s when there was alleged laxity and extremism among the Muslim on religious practices, especially on the aspect of adherence to the sunnah of the Prophet. Therefore, this paper assessed a controversial issue among the ʽulamā in Ilorin, with emphasis on the status of Ṣahīh Bukhārī book of hadith. The paper includes a brief history of how Islam spread in Ilorin through the efforts of the scholars. The emergence of controversy among some contemporary Ilorin scholars is examined. The objectives of the research is to bring out some issues raised by the scholars in Ilorin on the status of Ṣahīh Bukhārī book of hadith to the generality of the Muslims and correct some notions. In this paper, historical and interpretative methods were adopted. Finally, the findings of this study revealed that the reasons for the polemics among some contemporary Muslim scholars in Ilorin were superiority and inferiority complex over one another on Islamic Knowledge. Though, these controversies usually lead to various negative consequences, but equally have some atoms of positive effects on Muslims in Ilorin.
Keynotes: Islam, Polemics, ‘Ulamā, Controversy, Contemporary
The word ‘ulamā is an Arabic word which means scholars. It connotes the learned people in Arabic and Islamic knowledge from whom others benefit from. ʽulamā could either be from the people of the past or those who are currently living. Ilorin is one of the cities dominated by Arabic and Islamic scholars in Nigeria. There is problem in bringing out all the names of contemporary scholars in Ilorin because as generally believed all Ilorin people are scholars compare to some other places in Yoruba land. In the book titled ʽUlamā Al-Imarah by Jimba and Otukoko, 27 names of scholars were mentioned and yardstick used was based on the achievements and the responsibilities of those scholars. Though, none of the contemporary scholars were mentioned except the scholars of the past (Jimba & Otukoko, 2015). Likewise, Shaykh Adam in his book titled Lamhatul ballur fi Mashahir cUlamā, stressed out the names of scholars into four generations and classified them to those in the East and West (Al-Ilory, 1972).
It became clear from all indications that the measurements used in those books to arrive at the names of scholars may not be applicable in this contemporary time because the scope of knowledge is widen and Ilorin is more populated than before. To go with the lists of the scholars in the Council of ʽUlamā will be a mirage in getting all the names of scholars. This is simply because, not all the contemporary scholars of Ilorin are well represented and some scholars in the council are not Arabic and Islamic scholars. Therefore, in this paper effort will be made to look at the Ilorin scholars of today and examine the controversial issues among those that their literatures are available.
Islam in Ilorin
Apparently, the history of Islam in Ilorin is as old as the origin of Ilorin itself. According to Jawondo (2015), Islam in Ilorin started around 17th Century or earlier than that. With this, Jawondo was not sure on the precise date that Islam showcased in Ilorin. Eliasu (2015), confirmed that no exact date to be reverred to for the emergence of Islam in Ilorin. Therefore, the historical events surrounding the advent of Islam in Ilorin could be classified into two: Firstly, The origin of Islam in Ilorin could be dated to the arrival of Solagberu and his fellows in Ilorin. It was observed by Hambali (2014), that the settlement of Muslims in the abode called Oke-Suna in Ilorin was before the beginning of 17th century. Ilorin was believed to have been occupied by different groups among which were Muslims like Solagberu and his people who established their Islamic principles and settled down at Oke-Suna (Jimoh, 1994). As noted by Jimba, Islam had been in practice before the arrival of Sheikh Alimi stated thus:
In the outlying zones of the then Ilorin like Gambari, Gaa and Oke-Suna, however, Islam was widely practiced before Shaykh Alimi’s arrival at Ilorin (Jimba, 2016, p.34).
During this period, Islam in Ilorin touched some areas and influenced some places. Solagberu together with his colleagues disseminated the message of Allah and His Prophet, Muhammad to the far and near places. Danmole (2012) pointed out that, the Islam during this face was not totally practiced the way it ought to be practiced. This assertion is not correct and far from the truth, because Jimoh (2016) has explained in his view what the name Oke-Suna implies, an indication to the fact that the people there were living in line with the shariʽah practices. Due to the status of Islam before the arrival of Shaykh Alimi, Jimoh (1994) observed that:
…. The reputation of Oke-Suna as a mini-centre of Islamic tradition attracted many other migrant Muslims from different parts of Yoruba land, especially from Gbanda, Kobayi, Agoho, Kuwo and Kobi (p.421).
The point raised by Yusuf (2015) is worthy to note here that, “all the people of these settlements cannot be said to be practising Islam” (p.72). Without any iota of doubt, Okesuna as the name implies shows that some Muslims in the territory were living with the dictate of Allah and sunnah of Prophet Muhammad. Though, the sunnah practices may be restricted to the scholars and their families alone not the entire people of the area. The act of generalizing the theory of syncretism over the people in Okesuna before arrival of Shaykh Alimi could not hold any water. There are many scholars who were in Oke-Suna before the arrival of Shaykh Alimi’s in Ilorin; among which are; “Mallam Abdullahi Tahir (Solagberu), Ancestral parents of the Ojibara family and others” (Jimoh, 1994, p.421).
Secondly, the coming of Shaykh Alimi into Ilorin marked another dimension in the history of Islam in Ilorin. During this period, the practice of the teaching of Islam changed from the way it was known in the first generation of Muslims in Ilorin. Unlike before, the privatization of Islamic religion was changed to public practices among the Muslims through the teachings of Shaykh Alimi. The Shaykh was born in 1740 (Yusuf, 2015, p.71) and studied under various scholars but due to his zeal for the spread of Islam he migrated and settled in Ilorin around 1808 (Jimoh, 1994). His meticulous activities and methodologies of propagating Islam earned him points among the scholars in Ilorin. Following are the methods used by the Shaykh to accomplish his mission.
Shaykh Alimi was highly welcomed by the scholars he met in Ilorin and the support he received from them assisted him in the development of Islam. Also, his arrival facilitated the coming of many scholars to Ilorin. These scholars came from different places to settle down in Ilorin in order to help the propagation of Islam champion by Shaykh Alimi. If those periods discussed above constituted the historical account of Ilorin, and showed the coming together of scholars for the sake of Allah; then the period of controversies needs to be examined.
The Emergence of Controversy among some Contemporary Ilorin Scholars
Controversy among the ʽulamā spread its fluttering wings over the Muslims in Ilorin. The Muslims in Ilorin started getting influenced with the preaching and teaching of some scholars. In the early stage, two prominent indigenous late scholars; Shaykh Kamaludeen Al-Adabi and Shaykh Adam Abdullah Al-Ilory rose up and became well known both at the local and international level due to their scholarship in Arabic and Islamic Studies. The irony of the situation became clear towards the second half of 20th century when the two scholars were seen with their differences. In addition, the emergence of Ummah of Olukade, the Shiʽa and the Sherif groups is one of the factors which have been triggering controversies among the scholars (Jawondo, 2006).
In this epoch, the reforming ideology of some groups, most especially those that regarded themselves as ahlu-sunnah and salafi groups filled up the entire society. The emergence of controversy among Ilorin ʽUlamā resulted in a sharp conflict between the Muslims of the emirate. The conflict among the traditionalists and the reformists, ahlu-sunna and ahlu-ṣūfī groups, and nominal Muslims, has been persisting among the Ilorin ulamā. The root of this controversy revolved around claiming of the authority of Qur’ān and hadīth of Prophet Muhammad and the use of reason. The conflict between the ʽulamā is not only trending on the media but also dividing the city into fractions and putting the nominal Muslims in a state of confusion. In an in interview conducted with one of the members of Muslim council, Shaykh Yusuf Pakata (personal interview, 8th, February 2017); shows that criticisms, denouncements, and condemnation of each other has gone beyond the ethics of disagreement laid down by the principle of shariʽah and that it is causing serious division among the Muslims in Ilorin.
The spread of Islamic awareness in Ilorin began to stagnate after the coming of many criticisms by the fractions created. Different fractions tried in mobilizing supporters for their doctrines. An attempt to curb the controversy among the contemporary ʽulamā led to the establishment of the “Committee on matter affecting Islamic Religion” in 1999 which was later changed to the Council of ʽulamā in 2005 under the leadership of the Emir of Ilorin, Ibrahim Zulu Gambari (Adesina,2010). It was an important force to guide and show the right track to the generality of Muslims, so that they would be protected from wrong interpretations of scholars using Qur’ān and hadīth as their evidences. The major aim behind the establishment of the council was to rectify the problem facing the establishment of mosques, Imamship tussle, and the affairs of Alfas in the Emirate. The council to some extent is rectifying and awakening the spirit of knowing the evidence provided in the Qur’ān and hadīth. Some member of the Councilʽulamā includes;
- Justice Abdul Qadir Orire (retired Grand Qadi of Kwara State).
- Mutalib Ahmad Ambali (retired Grand Qadi of Kwara State).
- Shaykh Muhammad Bashir Salih (The current chief Imam of Ilorin).
- Shaykh Abdul-Hameed Abdullah (Imam Imale of Ilorin).
- Alhaji Ahmad OLayiwola Kamal.
- Justice Idris Haroon.
- Justice S.O Muhammad.
- Shaykh Habībullah, Adam Abdullah al-Ilori (Mudīr of Marikaz).
- Shaykh Al-Imam Yakub Ali-Agan
- Shaykh Yusuf Murtala Pakata.
- Shaykh Sulayman Faruq (Al-Miskin)
- Alfa Muhammad Awal Yusuf Agbagi (Khalifa Shaykh Yusuf Adara)
- Alhaji Saka Yusuf (Retired Chief Juge).
- Alhaji Abdullah Atanda (Formal National President I E D P U).
- Alhaji Shehu AbdulGafar (Danmadami of Ilorin).
- Alfa Bature (Ajanasi Ilorin)
- Shaykh Sulyman Danboronu .
It could be observed that not all afore mentioned members of the Council of ʽulamā are Islamic scholars. From all indication, in the Council, some members are not vast in Islamic knowledge to enable them effectively contribute their quota in any Islamic issue tabled before the council. The reasons for their appointment as memberships in the council are best known to the Emir. Though, it may be because of their exposure, knowledge in different fields, and experience in settlings dispute that motivated the Emir. It is germane here to know the controversial issues among the scholars whether they worth to be causing issues among the scholars, determine their stands and bring out the area which stand plausible.
Some Controversial Issues among the Contemporary Scholar in Ilorin
The issues that caused debate among the scholars of Ilorin are worthy to be investigated to see the different views and the standing point advanced by each of these scholars. These scholars are not going beyond the teaching of Qur’ān and hadīth of Prophet Muhammad but their interpretations differ. To get more insight into the controversy among the scholars in Ilorin, we could examine some specific issues over which some Ilorin ʽulamā differ. Though, there are many controversial issues among Ilorin scholars of today, among them include;
- issues on veil,
- issues on greeting,
- women in leadership,
- Maulud Nabiyy,
- doing dhikir in congregation,
- beaten drums and many others
- status of Ṣahīh Bukhārī and others.
This paper will only focus on the status of Ṣahīh Bukhārī which their literatures are available among scholars in Ilorin.
The Status of Ṣahīh Bukhārī
Among the disagreements of contemporary ʽulamā in Ilorin is on the status of hadīth Bukhārī. Shaykh Habībullah Adam Al-Adaby was on record to have said that some ahadīth in Ṣahīh Bukhārī require further verifications because they were not written by him but by some scholars after his death. To him, Bukhārī’s own book was no more in circulation except the one compiled through the efforts of those scholars after 150 years of Bukhārī’s death (Al-Fulānī,2016, p.131). Furthermore, Shaykh Habībullah believed that Imam Bukhārī was not infallible, so the book which is said to have been written by him could not be totally free from error (Harīrī, 2011, 50-52). Contrarily to that, Shaykh Thawbān Adam Al-Ilory (Shaykh Habībullah’s bother), narrated in his book “Mawqifu Al-ʽAllāmati-l-Ilory” that people called him about Mudīru disregarding Imām Bukhārī and then mentioned some points said Mudīru levied against Imām Bukhārī as follows:
- That Imām Bukhārī was not an Arab and never understood Arabic language.
- That Imām Bukhārī was a blind person.
- That Imām Bukhārī never compiled any Sahīh.
- That in the book of Sahīh Bukhārī there are some ahadīth that cannot be traced in chains and contents to Prophet Muhammad.
- That the great companions are of dubious characters (Al-Ilory, 2016, 36-39).
He considered the point of Shaykh Habībullah on what he said that Imam Bukhārī did not compile Ṣahīh as a big fallacy because to him, Imām Bukhārī was the author of his book in what he stated thus:
أن الإمام البخاري لم يجمع كتابه الصحيح فإنما جمع له ونسب إليه بعد مئة عام من مضيه… نقول: هذا لبهتان مبين ولم نسب إليه ولم ينسبه جامعه إلى نفسه؟ وقد ألف الإمام البخاري غير من الكتب كالآدب المفرد، والتاريخ الكبير، ونسبة تأليف كتابه “الجامع المسند الصحيح المختصر
Verily, Imām Bukhārī did not compile any book of Ṣahīh, rather it was compiled for him and attributed to him after a century of his departure; … we say, it is a clear falsehood, why was the book ascribed to him and not ascribed the book (Al-jamiu) to himself? It is known that Imām Bukhārī has authorized some books apart from Ṣahīh Bukhārī, like Adabu al-mufrad, and Tārīkhu Al-kabīr and the book attributed to him Al-jamiu Al musnad -s- sahīhi- l-muktasar (Al-Ilory,2016,38).
Harīrī (2011) submitted on this regard that Mudīru Marikaz is not overruling Ṣahīh Bukhārī in his exposition but only opposing some ahadīth which required elucidation as contained in Ṣahīh Bukhārī. In the book titled “Afwan Yā Faḍhlata Al-Mudīr”, Harīrī ascertains the accuracy of the statement of Mudīru Marikaz that he was not criticizing Bukhārī and Muslim except some part of the ahadīth considered faulty in their works. He affirmed on the claim that no books, with inclusion of Ṣahīh Bukhārī are infallible except the book of Allah (Qur’ān). He buttressed his claim with what Imam Shafī said that, Allah disagrees with any book to be perfected except His book (i.e Al-Qur’ān).
“ أبى الله تعالى أن يتم إلا كتا به ” أي القرآن
It is well observed that those who are faulting one hadīth or the other are only concentrating their attention much on the chains of the narration of the ahadīth and not on the contents of those traditions as pointed by Harīrī. He relied on the principle that “the weak in chain requires no weak content and vice versa” i.e. at times, chain will be weak and its content will remain sound and vice versa (Harīrī,2011). To corroborate this assertion, Harīrī gave some examples of traditions considered having defect in Ṣahīh Bukhārī. Among the example given is on the book of ablution that Zaid bin Khalid narrated thus:
حدثنا سعد بن حفص حدثنا شيبان عن يحيى عن أبي سلمة أن عطاء بن يسار أخبره أن زيد بن خالد أخبره : أنه سأله عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه قلت أرأيت إذا جامع فلم يمن ؟ قال عثمان يتوضأ كما يتوضأ للصلاة ويغسل ذكره . قال عثمان سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم . فسألت عن ذلك عليا والزبير وطلحة وابن أبي كعب رضي الله عنهم فأمروه بذلك
I asked ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan about a person who engaged in intercourse but did no discharge. ‘Uthman replied, “He should perform ablution like the one for ordinary prayer but he must wash his penis.” ‘Uthman added, “I heard it from Allah’s Apostle.” I asked ‘Ali Az-Zubair, Talha and Ubai bin Ka’b about it and they, too, gave the same reply. (This order was cancelled later on and taking a bath became necessary for such cases).
The above hadīth was said to have rescinded with another which stated that when the two circumcised part of the body touches one another it is obligatory on the person to perform bath. In the first tradition, the reason why it is classified by Harīrī (2011) to be weak tradition is because of what Imam Al-Tirmidhi considered abrogation to mean a type of defect in hadīth. It is not obscure from this angle that Harīrī seems defending Shaykh Habībullah on this issue without looking at the correctness on the points raised by the Shaykh Habībullah. It is equally understood that Shaykh Thawbān put Imām Bukhārī in high esteem.
Shaykh Yahya Al-Fulānī expatiate from the two points of views and tried to strike a balance between Shaykh Habībullah and the Ahl-Sunnah group directing to the fact that parts of Shaykh Habībullah’s statements were not too good and not worth depending on. The reason for that was due to the treatment he suffered from some part of Ahl-Sunnah group which hot him and in retaliation digging out what he considered hidden secrete. Concerning Shaykh Habībullah, Al-Fulānī (2016) submitted thus:
أن نقدات الشيخ محمد حبيب الله نقدات تجديدية لكنها لا تخلو من عواطف انفعالية بسيطة مما جعل بعض خطابه غير جاد ولا مستقيم
The criticisms of Shaykh Muhammad Habibullah are new but not distinguished from being very simplest affections that make part of his speech neither proper nor well standard (p.132).
It is important to examine two ahadīth pointed out by Shaykh Habībullah in his argument which require attention of scholars in Ilorin. Among the examples include the hadīth narrated by ʽAisha from Prophet Muhammad thus:
حدثنا الحميدي حدثنا الوليد حدثنا الأوزعي قال سألت الزهري أي أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم استعاذت منه ؟ قال أخبرني عروة عن عائشة رضي الله عنها : أن ابنة الجون لما أدخلت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ودنا منها قالت أعوذ بالله منك فقال لها ( لقد عذت بعظيم الحقي بأهلك)
Narrated ‘Aisha: When the daughter of Al-Jaun was brought to Allah’s Messenger (as a bride) and he went near her, she said, “I seek refuge with Allah from you.” He said, “You have sought refuge with The Most Great; return to your family.” (Az-Zubaidi, 1996, 907)
In the above hadīth, Shaykh Habībullah was of the stand that it ought not to be part of the Ṣahīh Bukhārī, because it ridicules the personality of the Prophet. Shaykh Imrān Abdul-Majeed Eleha was reported to have said that Mudīru is not looking at headings on each hadīth reported by Imām Bukhārī and accepted that nothing was wrong with the hadīth. Harīrī (2011) submitted that the above hadīth has no correlation with the topic given by Imām Bukhārī and so it requires further elucidation. Apart from the above traditions, Shaykh Habībullah equally challenged the authenticity of the hadīth reported by Aisha saying that Prophet Muhammad had sex with his wife during menstrual period. He opined that the hadīth must be removed because of Qur’ān verse which ordered Muslims to abstain from sex while women are in their periods. Generally believed, the hadīth must not go in contrary with what is found in the Qur’ān and any of such must not be attributed to the Prophet Muhammad. Shaykh Habībullah, quoted the following hadīth:
حدثنا قبيصة قال حدثنا سفيان عن منصور عن إبراهيم عن الأسود عن عائشة قالت : كنت أغتسل أنا والنبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من إناء واحد كلانا جنب وكان يأمرني فأتزر فيباشرني وأنا حائض وكان يخرج رأسه إلي وهو معتكف فأغسله وأنا حائض
The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a single pot while we were Junub. During the menses, he used to order me to put on an Izar (dress worn below the waist) and fondle me. While in Itikaf, he used to bring his head near me and I would wash it while I used to be in my periods (menses). (No. 208)
حدثنا إسماعيل بن خليل قال أخبرنا علي بن مسهر قال أخبرنا أبو إسحاق هو الشيباني عن عبد الرحمن بن الأسود عن أبيه عن عائشة قالت كانت إحدانا إذا كانت حائضا فأراد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أن يباشرها أمرها أن تتزر في فور حيضتها ثم يباشرها . قالت وأيكم يملك إربه كما كان النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يملك إربهتابعه خالد وجرير عن الشيباني
Narrated ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Aswad: (on the authority of his father) ‘Aisha said: “Whenever Allah’s Apostle wanted to fondle anyone of us during her periods (menses), he used to order her to put on an Izar and start fondling her.” ‘Aisha added, “None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet could.” (No.209)
Shaykh Habībullah misinterpreted and misunderstood the above ahadīth because the word mubāshara as translated by Az-Zubaidi (1996) does not connote sex but romance. Prophet Muhammad from whom the religion is completed would not have done such, because he is the best example. It would be better if the word mubāshara in the above tradition is interpreted as romance rather than sex to be at the safest side because of the verses of the Qur’ān which instructed men to abstain from having sex with women during the state of impurity. Allah says:
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّى يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ
They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allah loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.) (Qur’ān 2v222)
From the evidence, Shaykh Habībullah was not saying new thing even though it may be new in Ilorin as viewed by Shaykh Al-Fulānī. It is just mere repetition of some works of scholars in Cairo especially Jamāl Al-Banā who author the book titled “Unclothing Bukhārī and Muslim from the ahadīth that are not reliable” (Al-Fulānī, 2016,). It became clear from the two sides that Ṣahīh Bukhārī is not infallible like that of Qur’ān, then, there is possibility of having some weak traditions contained in the book. If the Ahl-Sunnah group were to be objective with their standpoint they would have brought out for people some ahadīth considered by them as weak traditions in the book. The only tradition pointed out by Jabata to have element of doubt in Ṣahīh Bukhārī quoting Ibn Qayyim and Imām Ahmad to have observed, is a tradition reported by Buhainat thus:
حدثنا خالد بن مخلد حدثنا سليمان بن بلال عن علقمة بن أبي علقمة عن عبد الرحمن الأعرج عن ابن بحينة رضي الله عنه قال : احتجم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم وهو محرم بلحي جمل في وسط رأسه
Narrated Ibn Buhaina: The Prophet, while in the state of Ihram, was cupped at the middle of his head at Liha-Jamal.
The issue of authentication of hadīth goes beyond the thinking of a particular person. Of what degree was he sure that, that was the only weak tradition and why other Ahl-Sunnah group failed to come up with their submittal? It is so apparent from this point that that some Ahl-Sunnah group put Imām Bukhārī in a high rank and thought he can be error free. They only look at him and his book with myopic eye from the angle of Ibn Kathīr, Dārimī (the Mufasirun) and not like human being. They never see Imām Bukhārī as someone who cannot be faulted or attacked at times on some of the ahadīth he compiled. It is on the basis of this; Al-Fulānī saw Sārūmī for not defending the truth and not objective in defending Ṣahīh Bukhārī because no scholastic argument provided as far as the book is concerned. . Al-Fulānī (2016) said:
أن هذا الفتى يتحدث عن الدفاع الإمام البخاري لا أنه يدافع عن الحق فيمكن له أن يتجرد للحق
This juvenile is speaking in defence Imam Bukhārī, but not defending the truth, it is easier for him to relinquish for the truth (p.131).
Conclusion and Recommendations
Most of the controversies among the scholars of Ilorin in this contemporary time are to a large extent the claim to the legitimacy of the authority of Qur’ān and hadīth and delegitimizing others. If ikhtilāf is not properly managed among the scholars with the proper ethics, it would not only bring more confusion but also generate to physical combat among the future generation of the Muslims in Ilorin. The controversy over some religious issues should not and must not be a subject of conflict among the Ilorin scholars. This paper therefore recommends the following:
- The Ilorin Muslim scholars should study the ethics of disagreement as practiced by Prophet Muhammad and his companions for them to be able to maintain peace among them. This is because failure to adhere to the ethics will result to a serious discordance among the Muslims.
- The rules of interpretation must be applied by the scholars in explaining the text of Qur’ān and hadīth correctly and they should avoid the usage of their discretion or personal knowledge to discuss the Islamic issues.
- The scholars should be cautious of what to say in their lectures and they should avoid claiming of knowledge superiority over one another. They should do away with condemning one another even when on right track to get popularity.
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ROLE OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC SCHOOLS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF MUHYIDEEN COLLEGE OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC STUDIES, KUNLEDE, ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
- ABDUR-RAFIU (Ph.D.)
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education,
Ilorin, Kwara State
Muhibudeen Abdur-Rahman AIKU
HOD Department of Islamic Studies,
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin, Kwara State
Tunde ALFA BANNI
HOD Department of Arabic,
Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education,
Ilorin, Kwara State
Ibrahim Solahudeen ABDULGANIY
Alhikmah University, Adewole , Ilorin, Kwara State
Muhyideen College is one of the private Arabic and Islamic Institutions in Ilorin. The institution has various units and sections. It is among the Arabic and Islamic institutions that incorporated modernization into the system of Arabic and Islamic education. The primary aim behind the establishment of Muhyideen Arabic and Islamic college was to afford the Muslim children opportunity of acquiring Islamic education alongside western or secular education. The above mission of the college falls within the purview of human development. This paper therefore examined the history, growth, development and achievement of Muhyideen Arabic and Islamic college, Ilorin with a view to verifying the relevance of college academic programmes to human development. Historical and analytical research methods were adopted for the work. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Findings of the work revealed that the college’s programmes are relevant in terms of Muslim youth development and preparation for future challenges. The findings also revealed that the college has gone far with regards the achievement of the purpose for which it was established. It was however recommended that the college should not relent in its efforts by rising to the challenges coming to her lines so that more achievement can be recorded in the future
Arabic language and Islamic Studies are like twins brothers both came out from the same womb. Islam was known through many languages of different tribes, but it is largely known and widely spread through the language of Arab and the prophet of mankind in which he is a native speaker of Arabic language.
There is no confusion in the popular assertion that Arabic is a member of the Semitic family of languages, which belongs to the South-West Semitic branch and embraces South Arabian and European languages. The corresponding sister branch is that of North-West Semitic languages, consisting of Hebrew, Ugaritic and Aramaic. Both branches belong to a wider group of languages known as the Hamito-Semitic family. 1
Islamic Education is education that is conceived as a process of self-discipline which involves physical, mental and spiritual training of man. 2 and it is also a complete way of life which encompasses all aspects of life. It guides man on the right path in order to enable him acquire happiness in this world and tranquility in the hereafter.
Through the two above definitions of the Arabic language and Islamic education it may look as if the two subjects are not in the same line through the type of education they are giving to their learners. Let us, look into this expression:
Language, next to religion, constituted the major endowing contribution of Arabians. For some three hundred years, beginning in the Mid-eighth Century, Arabic was the vehicle for transmitting scientific, philosophic and literary thought, which was quantitatively and qualitatively superior to anything being transmitted in Latin, Hindu, Chinese or any other language. 3
From the above statements we can now see the role of Arabic language in Islam. As also shown to everyone that, the Qur’an which is a major source of Islam, is a book of science, philosophy, history, literature, story and others. How do we separate Arabic from Islam or to make different from Arabic Education and Islam Education? The two educations are like the driver and his conductor.
Philosophy of Arabic/Islamic Education
The Qur’an and Sunnah has answered many questions that arise on any issue confronting human being in their environment either on education, economic, social, politics, or science and it has produced relevant and positive solutions to them. This Qur’an was also written in the language or Arab and also, the Sunnah was delivered through the Arabic language. Also, these sources are translated into the world languages by those who understand the target languages and the primary language of the Qur’an. Reading of the Qur’an and other sources in different languages other than Arabic could not give detail meaning. This is because at times, the translator of the source may translate according to his whims and caprices. So, it can cause misconception in the meaning. Arabic language holds large registers of words and expressions that have accumulated over the years. Arabic was said to be the reservoir of all old sciences and humanities transferred to people through the Dark Ages. Arabic language gives access to the rich culture of the Arabs and serves as an avenue to understanding Islamic culture. 4
It could be inferred from the above that Arabic and Islamic Studies contribute in no small measure to human development. The richness embodied in the treasury of Arabic and Islamic education could be unraveled or disseminated better through a deliberately organized educational setting. This singular reason perhaps might be what has prompted many individuals, private organizations and corporate bodies to embark on establishing centres for Arabic and Islamic Studies. At these institutions, the pupils, students and learners avail themselves the opportunity of learning and research into what Islam embodied and earn themselves an all –encompassing development.
Private Arabic and Islamic Schools in the Nigerian Educational System
The Private Arabic and Islamic schools in Nigerian Educational system was first established in the Northern part of Nigeria where Islam first penetrated. The two types of Arabic and Islamic schools developed were Makaranta Alo or Tablet school, which pupils stand for elementary/primary school and Makaranta ilmi or higher school.
The missionaries introduced the western type of education to Nigerians in order to win converts into Christians. The Christian missionaries used education to propagate Christianity most especially in the South. They embraced many people by the means of that western education. This situation prompted concern Muslim scholars and organizations to look at ways of salvaging Muslim individuals from being converted to Christianity during their quest for western education. On this, numbers of Islamic organizations sprang up to bring Islamic education into the fold of formal education system. Among these circles are Ansarudin society of Nigeria, Ansarul Islam Society of Nigeria, Ahmadiyyah Islamic Movement, Muhyideen Association and others. 5
There are also many Arabic and Islamic Schools that are well organized, (educational institutions established by voluntary Muslim organizations or interested Muslim Scholars and individual proprietors.) 6 The level of this type of educational institution was in three levels. These are:
- The Ibtidaiyyah (This level is equivalent to Primary School level or Basic 1-6 level in the formal oriented School)
- Idadiyyah (equivalent to junior secondary school)
- Thanawiyyah (this level is equivalent to senior Secondary School in the formal oriented School).
Markaz (Arabic and Islamic Training Centre Agege), Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic Studies and others are examples of those Arabic Schools. In addition, there are many Muslim Scholars and individual Proprietors that have established tertiary institutions of learning where teaching and learning of Arabic are conducted at advanced level. Among these institutions are:
- Al- Hikmah University, Adewole Ilorin, Nigeria
- Dar Alkitab College of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Gaa-Akanbi Ilorin, Nigeria
- Muhyideen College of Education, Kulende Ilorin, Nigeria.
- Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic School, Kulende, Ilorin, Nigeria.
However, the focus of this paper is to examine the history, growth, development and achievement of Muhyideen Arabic and Islamic college, Ilorin and reveal how it has contributed to human development.
Brief History of Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Ilorin
Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic school was established in Idi Orombo, Popo-Giwa, Ilorin, Kwara-State in the year 1962 and was later moved to its permanent site at Kulende in 1979. The school was founded by Shaykh Abdullah Jibril Imam Sahban. The mission of Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic studies reads “dedicated to revelation of religious activities and training of Islamic values and its methodology in order to enable the Muslims to deal effectively with present challenge, and contribute to the progress of human civilization in ways that will give it a meaning and a direction derived from divine guidance (Qur’an and Sunnah)”.
Aims and Objectives of Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Ilorin
- To acquire knowledge and disseminate to others.
- To prepare the students to understand Islam as a culture and civilization
- To describe Islam to the people according to its own original sources, particularly the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah of the prophet (saw) school.
- To prepare candidate that would adequately serve the ummah (a) To acquaint the students with the broad outlines of Islam as a religion and a way of life (b) To equip every child with the necessary skills and experiences to contribute towards the betterment of their communities and our society as a whole (c) To foster the invaluable Muslim character, as epitomized by the prophet Muhammad (saw) in the growing personalities of our children.7
Muhyideen, being the name of an Islamic Association was established in the year (1962) by Shaykh Abdullah Jibril Imam Sahban. The Association (Muhydeen) Association came to existence about four decades ago. The name (Muhydeen) manifests itself in so many ways. The beginning of its manifestation is traceable to early sixties when the Association started its primary assignment with establishment of Qur’an school named: Muhyideen Qur’an/ Islamic Education at Idi-Orombo in Popo-Giwa Area in Ilorin West L.G.A. To further improve the standard of the school in early seventies, an intermediate Arabic and Islamic ‘Idaad” (Junior Secondary School at Idin-Orombo was established. The school produced people like Dr. Uthman, A Ajidagba, a senior lecturer in the department of Arts Education, University of Ilorin and currently, the chairman, Kwara state Independent Electoral Commission, Dr. Abdur-Rasaq Abdul-Majeed Alaro, a lecturer in department of law, University of Ilorin, Dr. Abdul-Wahab M. Jammiu Elesin, a lecturer in Nasarawa state university, Dr. Tajudeen Yusuf, a lecturer Kwara State University Malete and many more. Later on, the school advanced to the level of having Thanawiyyah and diploma levels. The diploma was affiliated to Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Concept of Human Development
Human development is among the concepts that have contemporarily gained global attraction and attention. According to United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), human development is characterized on making life easy for people to live; providing people with freedom to develop abilities and use them; and giving people opportunity to make choices that they fill useful and beneficial to their lives. Maboloc9 noted that Human development should address the problem of expanding the person’s capability to make valuable choices in life in order to improve the quality of that life. However, on the issue of freedom mentioned as part of human development components, five types of freedom have been identified on the pertinence of their contributions to the capability of people to live more freely. These five types as submitted by Arab Human Development Report (2002) 10 are as follows:
- Political freedoms, which relate to the opportunities that people have to determine who should govern and on what principles, and also include the possibility to scrutinize and criticize authorities and to have freedom of political expression and an uncensored press.
- Economic facilities, which can be understood as the ways in which economies function to generate income opportunities and promote the distribution of wealth.
- Social opportunities, which refer to the arrangements that society makes for education and health care, both of which influence the individual’s substantive freedom to live better, as well as to transparency guarantees and protective security.
- Transparency guarantees, which safeguard social interactions between individuals and which are undertaken on the basis of some presumption of what they are being offered and what they expect to get.
- Protective security, which deals with the provision of the relevant social safety nets for vulnerable groups in society (p10)
Relying on the facts above, an attempt to establish an educational institution where knowledge acquisition takes place is perceived as a great contribution to human development. Founding and funding of an academic institution is perceived in this paper as an accomplishment that is in tandem with some of the types of freedom mentioned as components of human development components. e.g. (Economic facilities) and (Provision of social opportunities). For instance, through the establishment of a school, wealth is generated and a means of livelihood is created for the personnel that would work in that institution. Secondly, establishment of a school within the reach of masses is tantamount to fulfilling a social responsibility. A school is a factory where individuals are processed into refined personalities that can cope with increasing complexity in labour market and initialization. School is an institution where the culture of the society is transmitted. It also helps the individuals to develop skills necessary for survival in the society11. It is on this premise that this work classified the establishment and funding of Arabic and Islamic schools as a contribution to human development.
Curriculum of Muhyideen College and Human Development
The uniqueness of Muhyideen College in running programmes that are relevant to human development cannot be over emphasized. For instance, Muhyideen College was the first Arabic and Islamic school in Ilorin to introduce formally combination of Western type of education with the Islamic type to meet the challenges of the time. Muhyideen College runs curricula that integrate rich Islamic, Arabic and national values into its system. Unlike other private Arabic and Islamic schools, the academic programmes of Muhyideen College are monitored by Kwara state Ministry of Education, National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies, Institute of Education Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and some international educational bodies of high repute.
Muhyideen College has since establishment formalized Islamic Education by designing a standard curriculum classifying studies into subjects. Muhyideen College also ensures among other schools that the female Muslims have equal opportunity to acquire Islamic Education formally like their male counterparts. A notable point that testifies to Muhyideen College’s commitment to human development is the introduction of teaching practice exercise for the final year students where these students were deployed to neighboring villages outside Ilorin environs to rehearse what they have learnt and also render community development services. Muhyideen College was the first private Arabic school in Kwara State to register its students for Grade II examination and the first private Arabic and Islamic school to start Higher Islamic studies programme (HIS).
The fantastic innovative attitude of Shaykh Abdullah Jibril Sahban helped in no small measure to rapidly enhance the position of the school and increased the number of the students. Muhyideen College began to gain recognition from Libya Government in early seventies, Iraq in the late seventies and Saudi Arabia in the eighties. Among the beneficiaries of foreign scholarship under the auspices of Muhyideen College are: Prof. Hamzah Abdur-Raheem of Kwara State University Malete, and Alh. Zakariyau Nafiu a lecturer at kwara state College of Arabic and Islamic legal studies, Ilorin, Late Alh. Sulayman Ahmad Alabere, a former HOD of legal department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Alh. Sabuur Ghali Alaaya, Dean, School of Languages, Muhyideen College of Education, Abubakar Hasanat Alhaja, a lecturer in Department of Arabic, University of Ilorin, Alh. Zakariyah Nafiu, Legal Studies, Alh. A. Raheem Legal studies, Dr. Isiaq Ariibi Principle Muhyideen Arabic College, Kuleunde, Dr. Abdullah Hanafi, Dr. Abdur-Raheem Mashood, Dr. Abdul-Qadir Daud Elega, a lecturer in one University- Sudan and some others.
In the recent days Muhyideen extended its influence to other countries, such as Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritania and Syria. Consequently, the following are the institutions under Muhyideen:
- Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic studies, Kulende, Ilorin H.I.S.C Awarding Institution.
- Imam Sahban College of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Idi-orombo Ilorin. H.I.S.C. Awarding Institution.
- Muhyideen Arabic secondary school, Kulende, Ilorin, Ilorin. JSSC/SSSC Awarding School
- Muhyideen Nursery and Primary School, Kulende, Ilorin
- Muhyideen school of Qur’an memorization ‘Tahfeezul Qur’an
- Muhyideen women Islamic vocation centre, Kulende Ilorin.
Muhyideen College of Education
Muhyideen College of Education Ilorin was concerned in the year 2006 and brought to birth in 2007 with the provisional approval granted by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NNCE), Muhyideen College of Education started operation in 2007 to train Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) teachers. Its purposes are to organize and develop courses for the training of various categories of teachers, to promote researchers, and advance knowledge and learning as well as offer community services.12
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this work, a concise review has been made on the role of private Arabic and Islamic schools in human development with reference to Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic Studies as a case study. It is the position of this paper that a careful examination would reveal how Muhyideen College of Arabic and Islamic Studies Ilorin runs academic programmes that caters not only for literacy alone but rather for all-round development of Muslim children. The college has recorded a lot of achievements in terms of producing individuals with reputable professional qualities and characteristics. It was therefore recommended that the college should strive in ensuring full integration of entrepreneurship programmes into its programme so as to meet up with the contemporary advocacy and challenges. The proprietor and alumni of the College should also endeavor and leave no stone unturned in ensuring that the college rises to the challenges coming to her ways.
- Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol 1, 1960
- Iya-Mainna, M. The Role of Islamic Education in the Development of Nigeria
Community. NASRED, Religion and Community. 2004.
- Hitti, P.K. “Islam: a way of life”. Indiana: Regnery/Gateway Inc. 1970. p.106
- Alfa Banni, T.A. Teachers’ Assessment of An Arabic Language Textbook, An Nahwu Alwadh, for Senior Secondary Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria, unpublished An M.Ed. Project Submitted to the Department of Art and Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education University of Ilorin-Ilorin, Nigeria, 2013.
- Zubair. S.S. and Aminullahi. A Brief History of the Learning and Teaching of Arabic Language in Nigeria. NASRED, Religion and Community, 63 – 68. 2004.
- Oladosu, A.G. A.S. Fluctuations in the fortunes of Arabic Education in Nigeria. Unilorin Press, Ilorin. Nigeria. 2012.
- Al-Ihya’: The Annual Magazine of Muhyideen College of Arabic & Islamic Studies, Ilorin – Kwara State. Vol.1 No.1 1424AH/2003. C.E.
- United Nation Development Programme (UNDP)
- Maboloc, C. R. B. The Concept of Human Development: A Comparative Study of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Master’s Thesis in Applied Ethics Centre for Applied Ethics Linköpings Universitet. P.12. 2008.
- Arab Human Development Report (2002). www.arab-hdr.org/publications/contents/2002/ch1-e.pdf. Retrieved on line on 6/09/2016
- http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev retrieved on 6/09/2016
- The LENS. (SUG), Students’ Union Government Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin, Kwara State
REVITALIZING NIGERIA EDUCATION SYSTEM:
INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) AS AN ENHANCING TOOL FOR QUALITY EDUCATION TRANSFORMATION
Shola Raheem USMAN
Musa Adebayo ABDULKAREEM
Department of Curriculum Studies & Educational Technology (CSET),
Kwara State College of Education,
Binta Fatimoh USMAN
Department of Computer Science Education,
Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin
The paper discussed the roles of ICT in enhancing quality education in Nigeria for transformation and relevance to the development of the nation value. It equally established the benefits of ICT in quality education. The paper further highlights the hindrances associated with the use of ICT in quality education such as insufficient ICT facilities, unsophisticated accessories epileptic electricity power supply, human resources lack of ICT knowledge, difficulties to integration of ICT to instruction scheduling computer time, insufficient peripherals and lack of technical assistance. The paper then recommends that the government of Nigeria should pass a bill at the National assembly on the use of sophisticated ICT facilities in the educational sectors by provision of adequate fund, securing of ICT experts in institutions and ensuring that these facilities are monitored from time to time.
Education is seen as a key for transformation of individual for national development. A nation is said to be valued when a sizeable number of the citizens have quality education which includes:
* Learners who are healthy, well-nourished and ready to participate, learned and supported in learning by their families and communities.
* Environments that are healthy, safe, protective, gender-sensitive, and provide adequate resources facilities;
* Content that is reflected in relevant curricula and materials for the acquisition of basic skills, especially in the areas of literacy, numeracy and skills for life, and knowledge in such areas as gender, health, nutrition, HIV/AIDS prevention and peace.
* Processes through which trained teachers use child centred teaching approaches in well managed classrooms and schools and skillful assessment to facilitate learning and reduce disparities.
* Outcomes that encompass knowledge, skills and attitudes, are linked to national goals for education and positive participation in society (UNICEF, 2000).
In recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in how computers and the internet can best be harnessed as improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal setting (Cuban, 2006). If Nigeria as a nation needs to improve her quality in educations.
The integration of information and communication technology in her educational system needs urgent attention. Educational systems around the world are under increasing pressure to use the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) (UNESCO, 2002) as cited by Yuen, Lee, Law & Chan (2008). Similarly, Nwosu and Ugbomo (2012) opined that the field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries. ICT has made an impact on the quality and quantity of teaching learning and research in the tradition and /or distance education institutions using it (Kwacha, 2007). The need to re-orient and re-engineer its formal education patterns for transformation of its citizens is vital. Nwosu and Ugbomo (2012) assert that, ICTs greatly facilitate the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and poor. UNESCO (2003:p.5) points out that “this vision of education emphasizes a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to developing the knowledge and skills needed for a sustainable future as well as changes in values, behaviour and lifestyles. According to Ololube, Ubogu and Ossai (2007) the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new age in educational methodologies, thus it has radically changed traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary learning experience for both instructors and students. For developing countries, ICT have the potential for increasing access to and improving the relevance and quality of education (Nwosu & Ugbomo 2012). Nwosu and Ugbomo further stated that, when used appropriate different ICTs helps to expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the workplace, and raise educatitonal quality by creating an active process connected to real life.
Types of ICT Tools Used in Education
ICTs is a term used to refer to technologies that are used in creating, accumulating, storing, editing and disseminating of information in various forms. ICT as described by Bandele (2006), is a revolution that involves the use of computers internet and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavour. These include internet access, electronic mail, CD-ROMS, telephone, on line databases, library services and fax machine Nwosu and Ugbomo (2012). Reddi (2012) grouped ICT used in education into two categories namely synchronous media. Synchronous media require all participants to be together at the same time even though in different location, examples of synchronous are audio graphics, audio conferencing as in a telephone conference, broadcast radio and television, teleconferencing, computer conferencing such as chat and internet telephony. Asynchronous include audio and video tapes CDs, email, computer files transfers, virtual conferences, and multimedia products off-line web based learning formats. Teleconferencing is used in both formal and non-formal learning contexts to facilitate teacher learner and learner-learner discussions, as well as to access experts and other resources person’s resources persons remotely. In open and distance learning, teleconferencing useful tool for providing direct instruction and learner support, minimizing learner isolation (Tinio, 2002).
According to Taghioff (2001) the Kothmale community radio internet uses both radio broadcast and computer and internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri-Lanka. Tinio (2002) further noted that the India Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print audio and video broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies. Tinio (2002) further noted that ICT can expand access to education in the following ways:
Anytime, anywhere: one defining feature of ICTs is their ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example may be accessed 24 hours a day 7 days week. ICT based educational delivery (e.g., educational programming broadcast over radio or television). Also dispenses with the need for all learners and the instructor to be in one physical location. Additionally, certain types of ICTs, such as teleconferencing technologies enable instruction to be received simultaneously by multiple, geographically dispersed learners (i.e., synchronous learning).
Access to remote learning resources: Teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries and available in limited quantities for their educational needs. With the internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at any time of the day and by an unlimited number of people, this is particularly significant for many schools in developing countries and even some in developed countries, that have limited and outdated library resources. ICTs also facilitate access to resources persons, mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peers all over the world.
Improving the quality of education and training is a critical issue, particularly at a time of educational expansion, ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways; by increasing learner motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills and by enhancing teacher training (Haddad & Jurich, 2002). ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner-centred environment.
Motivating to learn: ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software computer software that combine text, sound and colourful, moving images can be used to provide challenges and authentic content that will engage the students in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise makes use of sound effects, songs dramatizations, comic skits and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered. More so than any other type of ICT, net worked computers with internet connectivity can increase learner’s motivation as combines the media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with real people and to participate in real world events.
Enhancing teacher training: ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example, in China, large-scale radio and television based teacher education has for many years been conducted by the China Central Radio and TV University, the Shanghai Radio and TV University and many other RTVUs in the country (Carnoy et’al, 2002).
Benefit of ICT in Enhancing Quality Education
There are numerous benefits derived from the use of ICT tool in enhancing quality ICT education such as the ability for learner to choose when to learn irrespective of geographical location without stress. Secondly, ICT also enable learners to discover and explore new ideas or innovations from expert around the global world through the use of the common ICT available facilities. Thirdly, the existence of ICT into education system, will enable delivery of lecturers to students, monitoring of learner progress and assessment can be done timely. However, Nwosu and Ugbomo (2012) listed the following as the benefits derived from the use of ICT in education.
Active learning: ICT enhanced learning mobilizes tools for examination, calculation and analysis of information, thus providing a platform for students’ inquiry, analysis and construction of new information. Learners therefore learn as they do and, whenever appropriate, work on real life problems in-depth making learning less abstract and more relevant to the learner’s life situation. In this way and in contrast to memorization based or rote learning, ICT enhanced learning promotes increased learner engagement. ICT enhanced learning promotes increased learner engagement. ICT enhanced learning is also “just-in-time” learning in which learners can choose what to learn when they need to learn it.
Collaborative learning: ICT supported learning encourages interaction and cooperation among students, teachers and experts regardless of where they are. Apart from modeling real world interactions, ICT supported learning provides learners the opportunity to work with people from different cultures, thereby helping to enhance learners teaming and communicative skills as well as their global awareness. It models learning done throughout the learner’s lifetime by expanding the learning space to include not just peers but also mentors and experts from different fields.
Creative learning: ICT supported learning promotes the manipulation of existing information and the creation of real world products rather than the regurgitation of received information.
Integrative learning: ICT enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative approach to teaching and learning. This approach eliminates the artificial separation between the different disciplines and between theory and practice that characterizes the traditional classroom approach.
Evaluation learning: ICT enhanced learning is student directed and diagnostic. Unlike statics, text or print based educational technologies, ICT enhanced learning recognizes that there are many different learning pathways and many different articulations of knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover rather than merely listen and remember.
Factors that Hinder ICT in Quality Education
The hindrances affecting ICT in quality education are numerous but some include issues such as:
- Insufficient ICT facilities and unsophisticated accessories
- Epileptic electricity power supply.
Insufficient ICT Facilities and Unsophisticated Accessories
In Nigeria most ICT facilities are not sufficient to enhance quality education to learners and teachers, even where it exist scheduling computer time, insufficient peripherals, not enough copies of software, insufficient teacher time, not enough simultaneous access, not enough supervision staff and lack of technical assistance. In addition, Lewis and Smith (2002) summarized these barriers as limited equipment inadequate skills, minimal support, time constraints and the teacher’s own lack of interest or knowledge about computer.
It is imperative and equally inevitable to say that quality ICT tools are a prerequisites to quality ICT education. Therefore, quality ICT facilities should be made available, accessible and equally made easy for staff and students to obtain in order to have quality ICT education in Nigeria. It is nice to say that ICT is a tool that enhances quality education for transformation of individual which in turn help to boast national economy. ICT therefore should be implemented fully in the educational system as already allowed by Federal government that CISCO is now be empowered to train Federal Government College students on ICT in Nigeria as the case with developed nations with the best ICT in Nigeria as the case with developed nations with the best ICT facilities in countries like United of State of America and Europe continent. Therefore, issues and challenges of ICTs in education should be given urgent/adequate attention in the national assembly and bill should be passed on the effective use of sophisticated ICT gadgets with ICT experts monitoring these equipment. These sophisticated ICT gadget could stand in test of time, be equipment tested and trusted for durability and reliability provided electricity supply is stable and not erratic.
In order to overcome the hindrances of ICT in quality education, the under listed recommendations should be put into consideration to ensure the effectiveness of ICT in quality education.
- Development and training of ICT experts, specifically for instruction design and development, who will work in partnership with educators and teachers (Kwacha, 2007).
- The adoption of ICT international standards and its inclusion in the Nigeria education system. Continuous training and retraining of teachers, others supporting staff and academia on computers and ICT skill acquisition should be provided.
- There is need for the Nigeria government to address seriously the issues of erratic electricity power supply, Ghana our neighbouring country has stable electricity supply, the Nigerian government has already on the move to give constant light through generating of power and distribution which can be possible through privatization as speculated, while management of educational institutions and schools should make provision for generating sets that can supplement Power Holding Company (PHCN) for supply of electricity power.
- Funding: Government at all levels of education system should make ICT a matter of priority, improve the funds needed in ICT training of teachers, students and supporting staff available at all time.
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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY/ICT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL
Tajudeen Suleman APE (PhD)
Ahmed Rukaiya SAAD
Taiye Hassan AHMED
Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Dr Abdul-Hameed Akorede ZAKARIYAH
Director Quality Assurance Unit
Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin
Educational technology/Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as sustainable development are correlated. These terms are like a side of a coin, the provision and effective utilization of information communication technology in the field of educational system will not only bring about the desired economic growth and development, also it will bring the sustainable development that Nigeria as a country is yarning for. To this ends, the purpose of the paper is to examine level of government resources for the implementation of educational technology/ICT in tertiary education. To assess government resources for the implementation of educational technology/ICT in secondary schools. The paper found that government has committed a lot of resources into the use of educational technology/ICT with much emphasis on tertiary education. Finding shows that government pays little or no efforts into the implementation of educational technology/ICT in our secondary schools. The paper recommended that expenditures on educational technology/ICT resources should be seen as important and usually significant for sustainable development. It was also recommended that educational professionals and economists should sensitize political leaders about the economic and educational benefits of educational technology/ICT tools in education. Education stakeholders must take the lead and assume their responsibility.
Key Words: Educational technology, Information Communication Technology, ICT in Education.
Education, information and communication technologies play a key role in enhancing the quality of education. The cost-effective use of ICT-enabled education projects to be instrumental in ensuring long term social, political, technological and economic development in the country. It is surprising that Nigeria still keeps student records on paper, still has thousands of schools without a single computer and worse still, does not have appropriate buildings that can house ICT infrastructures. Schools in Nigeria are lagging behind in ICT penetration, even schools in urban areas do not have ICT system, school that have suffer from electricity problem and the inadequacy of other logistics. The problem is worse in rural areas (source).
However, successful implementation of education technology/ICT requires strategic planning. As Wagner, Day, James, Kozma, Miller and Unwin (2005) observes that simply putting computers into schools is not enough to impact student learning.Specific applications of ICT can positively impact student knowledge, skills and attitudes, as well as teaching practices, school innovation, and community services.
The education system as a whole in Nigeria has not undergone enough reforms to part from the system set up by colonial rulers. Yet, as the 127 World Bank Report (2008) points out, old education systems in many African countries were not developed to empower Africans. There is urgent need for education reforms in Nigeria. The poor results of senior school certificate examinations (SSSCE) academic achievement on national standardized tests and the lack of preparation of these youngsters to meet college challenges bear testimony to the urgency of education reforms for sustainable development to be achieved. As Unwin (2009) noted that ICT is certainly not a panacea for education, but it is a powerful tool that when implemented appropriately can catalyze and accelerate education reform and development.
Furthermore, a growing body of research supports that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool for education in any country (Unwin, 2009). When appropriately implemented, ICT can catalyze and accelerate education reform and economic development. Nigeria can greatly benefit from an ICT-supported education system. Given the need for education reforms to be grounded in information and communication technology, it is important that ICT and education reforms be intertwined. When education and its supporting ICT are properly synchronized, the outcome can only be cost-effective and efficient and subsequently, on the economy of the Nigeria.
Objective of the Study
The aim of this paper is to examine educational technology/ICT and sustainable development. Specific objectives were:
- To assess level of government resources for the implementation of educational technology/ICT in tertiary education.
- To investigate government resources for the implementation of educational technology/ICT in secondary education.
Concept of Information Communication Technology (ICT)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is widely viewed as means of effecting change in education, which can translate directly to increased economic development. Tinio (2009) defines ICT as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and create, disseminate, store, and manage information.
According Hang and Keen in Nworgu (2007), information technology means a set of tools that helps you work with information and perform tasks related to information processing”. The definition of French is more encompassing than that of Nworgu (2007) which was limited to information processing and did not extend to the communication of ICT. Actually, the term originated as Information Technology (IT) until recently when it was thought that the communication component ought to be highlighted because of its significance. It was then that the concept transformed to Information and Communication Technology ICT (Olusanya and Oleyede, 2003).
These technologies include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. Torero and Braun (2006) offer a much broader definition of ICT which encompasses equipment and services. For them, ICT includes the computing industry (hardware, software, networks, the Internet, and related services); electronic data processing and display (such as photocopiers, cash registers, calculators, and scanners, as well as a myriad of less well-known machines specifically tailored to production and manufacturing); telecommunications and related services (such as fixed and cellular telephones, facsimile machines, instant messaging, teleconferencing, and so on.); and audiovisual equipment and services (including television, radio, video, DVDs, digital cameras, compact discs, MP3 players, and so on(Torero & Braun, 2006).
What is meant by ICT in education? Gwang-Jo Kim (2009) provides a sensible definition that captures the essence of ICT in education. He defines it as a “Comprehensive approach to ICT in Education: Put simply, ICT is thought of as a reliable vehicle for education, a platform for communication, and a powerful tool for economic growth. Unfortunately, it has been observed that the use of ICT in education is still in its infancy in the Nigeria.
Primary ICT Resources
Attama and Owolabi (cited in Nwabueze and Ozioko, 2011) highlighted the following as primary ICT resources:
- Computers: Computers are no longer just mathematical tools but essential management resources. As we all may know, different operations can be handled more efficiently using Computers. With the computer, such activities as information generation, processing, analyzing, storage and communication for sustainable development could be executed easily. The greatest assets of the computer are speed, cost-effectiveness and optimal utilization of available resources. Some other computer accessories worthy of mentioning are CD.ROM, diskettes, flash drive, etc.
- The Internet: This has proven to the most valuable vehicle for accelerated information flow. According to Ogbomo (2004), it is a network of computers that communicate with each other, often over telephone lines. The potentials of the internet lies in the provision of global platform for information sharing among organizations and individuals. Information sharing creates awareness, ensures continuous use of products and services, provides feedback and support for organization. The contention here is that any organization or government that has current and useful information is empowered to enhance productivity and good governance.
- Electronic Mail (E-mail): This is the most widely used resource of the Internet. It is provided for sending and receiving mails (messages) through electronic devices. Intra and inter organizational communication has been made faster and cheaper. E-mail has become the life-wire for many business and organizational communication.
- World Wide Web (WWW): World Wide Web is also an Internet-based resource. It is a utility based on hypertexts (Hypertexts simply documents through keywords in document or page). A visit to a website helps individuals or organizations to locate products, information, pursue political or social agenda and transacts business (Chilvetalu, 2003).
From the above, we can infer that being on the web would put any nation or organization on the right course of speedy and sustainable development in line with the emerging changes in technology, economic and political paradigms. Consequently, many Organizations, Ministries and Parastatals in Nigeria have their own websites through which they make relevant information available to members of the public.
Scope of ICT in Education
Information and Communication Technology is viewed as a force that can advance and improve the quality of education services and the effectiveness of the economy of a country. Gwang-Jo Kim (2009) describes ICT in education as a multifaceted variable. He delineates five components of ICT in Education:
- ICT as a subject (i.e. computer studies)
- ICT as a tool to innovate teaching-learning practice (i.e. digital content, multimedia, teaching-learning methods, learning environment)
- ICT as an administrative tool (i.e. education management information systems (EMIS)
- ICT as an expanding learning opportunity (i.e. distance learning, e-Learning)
- ICT as a facilitator of higher-order thinking skills (i.e. learner-centered, self-directed learning, tailored learning)
ICT-driven education is known to empower individuals, to enhance learning and teaching processes, to help individuals share and disseminate accumulated knowledge and best practices, information, experiences, and products and services, and to promote productivity.
Current State of ICT in Education in Nigeria
The World Bank report (2008) describes best the grim general state of science, mathematics, and ICT (SMICT) education in Sub-Sahara Africa. Its report reveals the following challenges: poorly-resourced schools, large classes, a curriculum hardly relevant to the daily lives of students, lack of qualified teachers, and inadequate teacher education programs. In Nigeria, none of the schools surveyed had a computer in the classroom.
Recently, there has been general recognition by government officials that ICT can help the education system and the economy. In 2004, the government of Nigeria launched what seemed then a big initiative: “computers in education”. To this day, it has not yet been materialized. In fact, the whole concept of “computers in education” is now outdated. Yell and, Neal, and Dakich (2008) argue that the preferred expression now is Information and Communication Technologies in Education” usually abbreviated to ICT.
The 2004 initiative was part of a National Information and Communication Infrastructure plan. The government of Federal Republic of Nigeria teamed up with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) to develop a National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) plan. So far, this plan has achieved insignificant results in terms of e-government and national backbone ICT infrastructure. UNECA (2009) acknowledges the failure of this project. Due to political situation, finance, manpower and corruption,
Role of ICT in Education
ICT is increasingly becoming a more and more powerful tool for education and economic development. Unwin (2009) contends that ICT can be a catalyst by providing tools which teachers use to improve teaching and by giving learners access to electronic media that make concepts clearer and more accessible. Thus, ICT is used for capacity development and citizen empowerment. Ultimately, ICT can enhance educational opportunities and outcomes for students, including students with intellectual disabilities (Anderson, 2009).
According to Gwang-Jo Kim (2009), ICT in Education can serve the following purposes: a) Restructuring education system, b) Diversifying teaching-learning methods and practices, c) Engaging all stakeholders of education and adapt rapidly to changes in society and the environment, d) Enhancing education efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. Esque (2009) sees three key investment components in long term economic growth. She believes that (1) Investment in knowledge leads to sustained economic growth, (2) Knowledge economy framework, (3) Educational reforms to build relevant skills. Song et al (2009, p. 5) think that ICT in Education has three main goals: (1) Individual development, (2) Education reform, and (3) Social and Economic growth.
Challenges in Implementing ICT in Nigeria
Analysis of the current socioeconomic situation reveals that deploying ICT infrastructure in Nigeria can be quite challenging. Several challenges need to be addressed when planning ICT interventions in many parts of Nigeria. Those challenges include, but are not limited to, poor connectivity, unreliable electricity, inadequate educational facilities, scarcity of ICT qualified educators, inadequate teacher education programs, large classes, lack of educational resources and contents, a curriculum hardly relevant to the daily lives of students, little sustainability in education, high cost of ICT infrastructures, availability of textbooks, and lack of effective and efficient strategies. In fact, very few educational institutions in Nigeria have Internet access, computers, telephone lines, local area networks, mobile telephony, electricity, and educational radios or televisions.
Despite the vast mineral resources and various international aids that Nigeria has received throughout its 51years of independence, this large country in the heart of Africa has low availability of ICT. Weak institutions, government, parliament, media, national bank, etc. also constitute serious barriers to effective ICT adoption and implementation in the Country. As Torero and Braun (2006) note, “Research shows that ICTs cannot be developed without strong institutions that overtly facilitate private investment. Many of the national telecommunications monopolies (e.g. NITEL, MTEL) in Nigeria were privatized in the year 2003, introducing them to competition” which eventually killed them.
O’ Mahoney (2003) suggests a solid 6-pillar ICT effectiveness model. The 6-point plan comprises: resources, policy, departmental commitment, training program, ICT in Education: evaluation/appraisal, and student learning. He argues that a pre-requisite to success with school ICT is the provision of sufficient resources. The curriculum ICT policy must articulate well with the school’s business and strategic development plans. The department must commit to ICT professional development of staff. A robust and measurable professional development program must be in place. To drive home the message concerning the school’s commitment to ICT, effective classroom use of ICT must become a performance indicator for staff. Finally, the ultimate aim of ICT in education is the improvement of student learning. In order to implement ICT tools in education in the country, it is important that drivers and barriers be identified, including those related to curriculum and pedagogy, infrastructure, capacity-building, language and content, and financing (Tinio, 2009).
In respect to the difference in the perceptions expressed above, the researchers observed that the barriers to the effective use of education technology/ICT in the country may be summed up as follows: current thinking as regard to the willingness to control information and communication at all costs, lack of technical expertise, brain drain which has to do with too many qualified Nigerians leaving the country for greener pasture, risk aversion, isolated approaches, lack of education technology/ICT infrastructures, lack of technological leadership, and fear of change. If these and many more problems in the area of education technology/ICT in our education system are resolve, the country will achieve sustainable development.
Educational Technology/ICT and Sustainable Development
According to Nwabueze and Ozioko (2011), the development of any nation is usually barometered by the degree and extent of the sociocultural, socioeconomic, and political improvement thatare brought to bear through the enterprises of science, technology and mathematics. According to Bajah and Fariwantan in Olorundare (2007), sustainable development leads to fulfillment of societal ideals considered relevant to the needs and aspirations of the society. Factors, which influence such developments, are based on human ability to explore, invent, and utilize.
Satisfaction of spiritual, physical and material needs and the mastery of the environment are parameters of development when applied to the human society. It has been stated by several authors and scholars that the development of any nation depends very much on the advancement and application of science and technology (Bajah and Fariwantan in Olorundare, 2007). The role of science in the development of modern societies is not in dispute more so now that the influence of modern technological innovations is far reaching in every sphere of man’s life (Olorundare, 2007). If Nigeria is to build an organized, self-reliant, and technologically compliant society, much emphasis has to be continually made on science and technology. There is no doubt that Information and Communication Technology has found its niche in every sphere of Nigeria’s polity. Information and Communication Technology has been defined as a broad based technology (including its methods, management and application) that supports the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information.
A significant milestone in the development of the ICT industry in the country is the formulation of a National Information Technology Policy (NITP), which was approved in March, 2001 by the Federal Executive Council. With the enactment of this policy came the establishment of an implementing agency-the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in April 2001.This agency is charged with the responsibility of implementing Nigeria’s IT policy “as well as promote the healthy growth and development of the IT industry in Nigeria (Isoun, 2003).The major thrust of the IT policy in Nigeria can be gleaned from its vision and mission statement. According to the then Honourable Minister of Science and Technology, Isoun (2003) the vision of the policy is to make Nigeria IT-capable country in Africa and a key player in the information society by the year 2015, using IT as the engine for sustainable development and global competitiveness. On the other hand, its mission statement is to: Use IT for: Education, Creation of Wealth, Poverty Alleviation, Job Creation, and Global Competitiveness. The policy relies on human capacity building as the major strategy for realizing its vision and mission (Isoun, 2003).
Secondary source of data collection was used in this study. This includes information and evidences from previous studies and analyses of scholars; international organization reports, government document, as well as journal articles that are related to educational technology/ICT and sustainable development in Nigeria.
Based on the evidences, the paper found:
- That government has committed a lot of resources into the use of educational technology/ICT with much emphasis on tertiary education.
- That government pays little or no efforts were put into the implementation of educational technology/ICT in our secondary schools.
It is clear that the adoption and implementation of education technology/ICT in education requires huge resources. The paper recommends that expenditures on education technology/ICT resources should be seen as important and usually significant for sustainable development.
The paper recommends that the federal and state governments to assist primary and secondary schools in the country to imbibe better ICT compliance.
The researchers recommend that educational professionals and economists should sensitize political leaders about the economic and educational benefits of education technology/ICT tools in education. They must take the lead and assume their responsibility.
The paper further recommends that conference to be known as “Education, Science, and Technology for Sustainable Development National conference” which should be aims to bring together researchers, scientists, engineers, scholar and students to exchange and share their experiences, new ideas, and research results about all aspects of Educational Sciences, Social Sciences, Engineering Education, Student Learning Outcomes and Assessment, Public Policy, Environmental Sciences, Education Economics, Geography, Information Technology, Urban and Cultural Studies, Higher Education Policy, Education Psychology, Student Affairs, Pedagogy, Elementary Education, Continuing Education, International Education, Special Education, Learning Technology, Statistics, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
It appears that educational technology/ICT use in education and sustainable development are closely correlated. In today’s interconnected world, educational technology/information and communication technology in education is increasingly playing important roles in boosting the economies of many developing countries. ICT has become a key driver in education, economy, politics, and culture. Virtually all countries are investing in ICT in education today.
Several African countries now have access to educational technology/ICT resources to join the global economy. Nigeria is one of the few countries that have yet to benefit from educational technology/ICT tools in education. Evidently, there are challenges to overcome before Nigeria, can effectively adopt and implement educational technology/ICT in education. Any education reforms in Nigeria need to address the new educational technology/ICT skills and tools required in today’s global economy in order to achieved sustainable development.
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STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON MOTORCYCLIST ACCIDENTS AND THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARD PATRONAGE OF COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLISTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS
ISMAEEL S. AJIA
Department of educational foundation,
Nana Aisha College of education Alagbado Ilorin.
This paper investigated knowledge on motorcyclists’ accidents and attitude of students toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists in Ilorin metropolis. Three hundred respondents were randomly selected from twenty secondary schools (10 Junior Secondary Schools and 10 Senior Secondary Schools). Thirty (15) respondents were used from each of the school (7 Boys and 8 Girls). This study is descriptive in nature and data generated from research were analyzed with the use simple of simple percentage. An inferential descriptive statistics of frequency was also used and the hypotheses were tested with the use of t-test to test the significant level at 0.05.The four research hypotheses raised for this study were rejected after tested. The findings it can be concluded that students’ knowledge on commercial motorcyclists’ risk-taking behaviors were high and both male and female students’ knowledge on risk-taking of commercial motorcyclists were differed. It also revealed that students were not so much differed on their levels of patronages score of commercial motorcyclists. Some recommendations were offered by the researcher which include; all motorcyclists (commercial motorcyclists inclusive) should be given education either by Federal Roads Safety Corps or Motorcyclists Unions or other agencies on road safety signs and behaviors to improve compliance and enhance safer road use. Educational programmes, legislative measures, and policies to reduce risk-taking behaviors in commercial motorcyclists and adolescents who use motorcyclists are needed to enhance safety on our roads.
Keywords: Knowledge, Attitudes, Patronage and Commercial Motorcyclists
In every part of Nigeria commercial motorcycles is gaining acceptance by all as the transport system possesses several features which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian Society particularly, in the urban centres. Some individual get on the motorcycle and carelessly jeopardize the health and wellbeing of other cyclists and pedestrians. Sometimes on our streets, you see some riders on speeding motorcycle with either caressing lover on the back-sit looking at their silencer, nodding to the tone of music, or making distractive phone calls while their motorcycles sprint commute within or above 120 km/hr skipping race (Reckless attribute). These among other behaviors may be accounted for the recent year’s motorcyclists’ over-representation in orthopedic wards hospitals and in traffic accident statistics in Nigeria. In the recent years, the upward spiral of development has meant a shift in the global burden of diseases. It is a well-documented fact that the burden of tropical diseases (such as HIV and TB); nutritional problem, and mental health will soon be supplemented by the global burden of road traffic injuries which is expected to rise to the third leading cause of death in the nearest future.
Commercial motorcyclists are vulnerable road users and the most severe injury outcomes for road cyclists are usually from collisions involving another motorcyclists or a motor vehicle due to their risk-taking behaviors. Disobeying road signals was one of the risk-taking behavior reported among motorcyclists and they have been observed paying little attention to road safety regulations leading to road traffic accidents usually involving other road users.
All around the world, males are more inclined to risk-taking and sensation seeking behavior. Males are more likely to over-estimate their abilities and young men take more risks, for example young men likely to ride at excessive or inappropriate speeds, are less likely to wear their helmet (John and Adebayo, 2011).
According to Pileggi, et al (2006) some city commercial motorcyclists believe that the name of the game on the road is staying alive; to not get poleaxed by the much faster, much heavier, fully mechanized vehicles with much they must share the streets. That means they have to do the right things to stay away from cars, buses, and trucks. It is predicated that commercial motorcyclists at risk of collision with car have divergent attitudes and beliefs about car drivers compared to safer riders, which may lead to a deficient mental model guiding their interactions with drivers (Charles et al, 2008).
A research carried out by Sufiyan and Ahmad (2012) revealed that motorcyclists are at high risk of accidents on the road. This was due to perceived behavioral characteristics of motorcyclists as well as observed behavior on the road, in addition to the physical vulnerability and excessive speeds. Hence the motorcyclists’ riding was considered as the least safe form of road use; it was also agreed that motorcycling is dangerous, but not all motorcyclists were necessarily risk riders. According to Mu’awiyyah and Sagir (2012) many of the commercial motorcycle riders lack proper knowledge on road safety measures. He also submitted that if helmets are properly used, are expected to reduce risk of fatal injury to the motorcyclists and the passengers.
Pedestrians’/Passengers Safety and Patronage of Commercial Motorcyclists
In Nigeria, commercial motorcycles came to existence in the late 1980s, during an economic meltdown unemployed youths began to use motorcycles to earn money by transporting passengers on narrow or poorly maintained roads to faraway cities and villages. Commercial motorcycles are now one of the primary modes of transportation system, the most popular informal one in the country by far. It has become a means of transportation regularly used by the young and the olds, and men and women.
The general attitude of pedestrians and passengers toward road traffic safety is pessimistic. According to Dandona (2005) pedestrians do not feel safe from motorcyclists when crossing streets; moreover, they believe that is dangerous. In some cities in Nigeria like some other countries where commercial motorcyclist are operating, there is legislation that requires restraints for child passengers, using of helmet by both riders and passengers, women with backed child not allowed, or carrying more than one passenger. There is also legislation forbidding operating motorcycle under the influence of alcoholic or drug. Also, there is legislation in place that delineates the right of way for the pedestrians. These legislations were put in place to protect the safety of the riders, passengers, pedestrians and other road users (Ajia, 2013).
Human error is estimated to account for almost 95% of all causes of traffic crashes in developing countries. The causative agents of traffic crashes or traffic accidents include high speed, drivers’/riders’ lack of awareness about traffic regulation and laws, non-compliance with traffic rules and regulation (Al-Naggar and Al-Jashamy, 2013).
In Ebonyi State of Nigeria, commercial motorcyclists account for most of the accidents recorded in the state in 2007; in Oyo State, accident and emergency unit reported to have been receiving an average of five cases of motorcycle accident victims weekly and in Ekiti State Specialist Hospital between October and November 2007, 167 cases of motorcycle accident victims were brought to the facility after crashing (The Nation, 2007).
High patronage of commercial motorcycle in Nigeria is encouraged by inadequate taxicab and bus service, and congestion and poorly maintained roads. Commercial motorcycles are used in cities by businessmen, government workers, and students to overcome traffic congestion, and are able to navigate roads that are in accessible to automobiles and buses, particularly in villages and urban slums. It fares are relatively cheaper in some cities compare to those of public transit and riding on commercial motorcycles has been described as “a unique experience” by both tourists and local users (The Nation, 2009).
The population for this study comprises of the entire secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis. Three hundred respondents were randomly selected from twenty secondary schools (10 Junior Secondary Schools and 10 Senior Secondary Schools). Thirty (15) respondents were used from each of the school (7 Boys and 8 Girls).
This study is descriptive in nature and the survey design was adopted to obtain data on the views of respondents’ knowledge and attitudes toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this research work is to examine the students’ knowledge and attitudes toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists in Ilorin metropolis. Specifically, the purpose of the study is to:
(1) Identify the behavioral characteristics of commercial motorcyclists.
(2) Find out the views of students on the ideal speed limit for the commercial motorcyclists.
(3) Find out the possible causes and preventions of motorcyclists accidents.
(4) Find out the students’ level of attitudes
Data Collection and Data Analysis
The researcher seeks the consent of the principals of the sampled schools for administration of the questionnaires to the students. The respondents were made to understand that the data will be used for research purpose only to gain their confidence. The demographic data and data generated from research were analyzed with the use simple of simple percentage. An inferential descriptive statistics of frequency was also used and the hypotheses were tested with the use of t-test to test the significant level at 0.05.
Table I: Showing Distribution of Respondents on the Bases of Sex, Class and Family Socio-Economic Status
Group No of Respondents Percentage
Male 140 46.6%
Female 160 53.3%
Total 300 100%
J.S.S. 2 75 25%
J.S.S. 3 75 25%
S.S.S. 2 77 25.7%
S.S.S. 2 73 24.3%
Total 300 100%
Low Income 100 33.3%
Average Income 125 41.7%
High Income 75 25%
Total 330 100%
The following research questions were raised for this study:
- Will students obtain high knowledge score on risk-taking behavior of commercial motorcyclists?
- Do male and female students have the same level of knowledge of prevalence of motorcyclists’ accidents?
- Does the students’ level/class make any difference in their attitude toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists?
- Does the students’ level of knowledge manifest positive attitudes toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists?
- There is no significant difference between male and female student level of knowledge score on risk-taking behavior of commercial motorcycle.
- There is no significant difference between male and female students’ level of knowledge score on prevalence of motorcyclists accidents.
- There is no significant difference between students’ level of patronage score of commercial motorcyclists on the basis of class levels.
- There is no significant difference in the level of students’ knowledge score and attitude of students toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists.
Testing of the Hypotheses
H01: There is no significant difference between male and female students’ level of knowledge score on risk-taking behavior of commercial motorcyclists.
Table II: Showing the Comparison between Male and Female Students’ Level of Knowledge Score on Risk-Taking Behavior of Commercial Motorcyclists.
Gender N X SD Df Cal-t-value Critical t-value
Male 179 50.86 10.27 298 2.72 1.96
Female 121 47.23 12.85
The above table compares students’ level of knowledge by gender. The table indicates that the calculated t-value of 2.72 is greater than the critical t-value of 1.96 at 0.05 alpha levels. Thus, the null hypothesis one is hereby rejected. Hence there is significant difference between male and female students’ level of knowledge on risk-taking behavior of commercial motorcyclists.
H02: There is no significant difference between male and female students’ level of knowledge score on prevalence of motorcyclists accidents.
Table III: Showing the Comparison between Male and Female Students’ Level of Knowledge on Prevalence of Motorcyclists Accident
Gender N X SD Df Cal-t-value Critical t-value
Male 150 52.47 10.81 298 3.08 1.96
Female 150 46.65 12.29
The above table indicates that the calculated t-value of 3.08 is greater than the critical t-value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference is hereby rejected. Hence, there are significant differences on students’ knowledge on prevalence of motorcyclists’ accidents.
H03: There is no significant difference between students’ level of patronage score of commercial motorcyclists on the basis of class levels.
Table IV: Showing Comparison between Students’ Levels of Patronage Score of Commercial Motorcyclists on the Basis of Class
Variables N X SD Df Cal-t-value Critical t-value
J.S.S. 143 46.35 5.85 299 1.46 1.96
S.S.S. 150 25.65 4.68
The above table indicates that the calculated t-value of 1.46 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between students’ level of patronage score of commercial motorcyclists on the basis of class levels is hereby accepted.
H04: There is no significant difference in the level of students’ knowledge score and attitudes of students toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists.
Table V: Showing Comparison in the Level of Students’ Knowledge Score and Attitudes of Students towards Patronage of Commercial Motorcyclists
Variables N X SD Df Cal-t-value Critical t-value
Knowledge 293 30.00 12.38 299 3.26 1.96
Attitudes 300 49.50 11.03
The above table indicates that the calculated value of 3.26 is greater than the critical t-value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the students’ knowledge score and students’ patronage of commercial motorcyclists is hereby rejected.
Findings of the Study
The finding of this study revealed that the null hypothesis one, two, and four were rejected. It implies that there is significant difference between male and female students’ level of knowledge score on risk-taking behavior; on prevalence of accidents of commercial motorcyclists; and no significant difference in the level of students’ knowledge score and attitude score toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists. While the finding also revealed that there is no significant difference between students’ level of patronage n the basis of class levels.
It was revealed in this study that male and female students differed on the level of knowledge on risk-taking behaviors of commercial motorcyclists. The area of differences include excessive speeds, operating commercial motorcycle under the influence of alcohol or drugs, non-compliance with traffic rule and regulation, looking at silencer when on high speed, nodding to music when riding anyone other risk-taking behaviors. This is line with Mu’awiyyah and Sagir (2012), Sufiyan and Ahmad (2012) and Charles et al (2008) who submitted that motorcyclists are at high risk of accidents on the road, due to their deficient mental model guiding their interactions with drivers and other road uses. The risk-taking behaviors of the motorcyclists such as excessive speed, but not all motorcyclists were necessarily risk-taking riders.
The finding of this study also revealed that the students’ knowledge on prevalence of commercial motorcyclists is high and differed on the basis of sex on feeling safe from motorcyclists when crossing roads; and witness of at least three traffic accidents involving commercial motorcyclists in a week. This is in line with The Nation (2007) that stated that in Ebonyi State, commercial motorcyclists account for most of the accident recorded in 2007; in Oyo State, an average of five cases of motorcyclists’ accident victims weekly and in Ekiti State, 167 cases between two months were recorded.
It also revealed that commercial motorcycles are prominent, popular and its patronage is high among students because those students schooling where there are no access roads to their school and the long distance trek to school or other places is over. Patronages of commercial motorcyclists generally ease transportation problems in the metropolis. This is in line with Fadare and Al-Hassan (2010) that stated its affordability to the commuters.
Finally, the findings also revealed that the students’ knowledge on the risk-taking behavior, possible causes of road traffic accidents, and traffic legislations in place dictate their attitudes toward patronage of commercial motorcyclists.
Based on the findings it can be concluded that students’ knowledge on commercial motorcyclists’ risk-taking behaviors were high and both male and female students’ knowledge on risk-taking of commercial motorcyclists in Ilorin metropolis were differed. The risk-taking behaviors of commercial motorcyclists in the area in reference identified include over speeding, wrong over-taking, looking at the silencer when riding at high speed, nodding to the tone of music, making phone calls, unnecessary displace of perfection and unwillingness to wear crash helmet. The difference in the level of knowledge of students may be due to the fact that many of the male students were riding and patronizing commercial motorcyclists more than their female counterparts. Generally, students’ level of knowledge on prevalence of commercial motorcyclists accidents wee high, but what accountable for the differences in level of knowledge on prevalence of motorcyclist accidents between male and female students may be attributed to possibly level of involvement in the accidents by their fellow students, their friends or their relatives. Therefore, history of involving or having family members or close friends who are injured or die in road traffic accident do play a role in the student’s patronage of commercial motorcyclists.
This study also revealed that students were not differed on their high levels of patronages score of commercial motorcyclists. Hence, it can be concluded that students’ patronage can be attributed to the inadequate number of taxicab and bus service, and congestion or traffic holdup, and the ability of motorcyclists to navigate roads that are not possible to access by taxicab and buses, its fares are cheap, and most importantly to get to and from school on time.
Finally, it can also be concluded that students with low level of knowledge on risk-taking behaviors and low level of knowledge on prevalence of accident of commercial motorcyclists may patronize them less frequent than students with high levels of knowledge on the risk-taking behaviors and high knowledge on prevalence of accidents of the commercial motorcyclists.
- All motorcyclists (commercial motorcyclists inclusive) should be given education either by Federal Roads Safety Corps or Motorcyclists Unions or other agencies on road safety signs and behaviors to improve compliance and enhance safer road use.
- Educational programmes, legislative measures, and policies to reduce risk-taking behaviors in commercial motorcyclists and adolescents who use motorcyclists are needed to enhance safety on our roads.
- There is need to enhance local effort to create or increase number of pathways for motorcyclists and improve the conditions of deteriorated roads.
- Traffic enforcement officers should be exposed to more training and retraining programmes to appreciate the value of providing consistent and enforcement services.
- Commercial motorcyclists should limit an excessive number of passengers (particularly children or school pupils) on motorcycles.
- School authorities should put measures in place to ensure that students coming to school on motorcycles do not carry more than one passenger (A student); and.
- School authorities should introduce “Student Road Safety Corp” in the school to direct traffic in the school and organize safety talks to educate other students.
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