NAMCOED Journal Main Articles 2019 Edition






Ismaeel .S. AJIA

[email protected]


Department of Educational Foundation,

Nana Aishat College of Education, Alagbado Ilorin.



This study focuses on counselling as a necessity for National Stability and Integration and it adopts the use of content analysis for this work. It works at the effect of conflicts on the Nationals Searching for National Stability and Integration, and the role of Professional counsellors in achieving the aim.  Some recommendations were proffered on how counselling can be used to curb future occurrence of ethnic, religion, tribal, political and land disputes or crisis in Nigeria which include; counsellors should employ mass-media to enlighten the Nigerian populace on the need for national stability; counsellors can detribalize youths through the use of group activities for students from different tribal and ethnic background; just to mention but a few.


Keywords: Conflict, Crisis, Ethnic groups, Counselling Stability and Integration.



Nigeria is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world, with over 250 ethno-linguistic groups, some of which are bigger than many independent states of contemporary Africa and at the beginning of 1960s, there were thousands of tribes or ethnic group in the world, about 1,000 represented in the geo-political space called Nigeria today. History has demonstrated the difficult, complex, and varied developments needed to unite a people under a government and to create among them a stable cultural, economic, political, and social community. The processes have been especially strenuous where people to be united have included diverse large groups distinguished by their own customs language, or separate identity (Davis’ et al, 2001).

It is on records that in 1953, thirty-six people were killed in the Northern Nigeria in communal clashes prompted by the visit of NCNC and AG leaders which were seen as retaliation against southerners, the Yoruba in particular who rebuked northern leaders in Lagos for refusing to support the self-rule motion tabled by Anthony Enahoro. In 1967, Nigeria degenerated into a civil war after the Igbo-dominated Eastern region tried to secede from the Nigerian federation. However, other Nigerians were not ready to let the oil rich east go away. The secessionists were fiercely attacked and by the end of the war in 1970, more than a million Igbo had either been killed or displaced (NTI, 2006).

The ethnic religion conflicts between 1999 till date shows there are worrisome development which threaten harmonious co-existence and jeopardize the unity of the Nigerian nation state and its fledging democratic experiment far more than any other challenges of democratic substance.      The least the government could do is to come to terms with the reality of Nigeria’s multi-religions status, recognize religions rights and ensure that religions rights of all Nigerians are equally protected (Adeniyi, 2002).


Literature Review

According to Newswatch Magazine (1999), ethnic conflicts have persisted in all geo-political zones of the country.  In the south-west zone of Nigeria in Ondo State, the Ilaje and Ijaw Arogbo have been fighting tribal war since September, 1998 until August, 5th 1999 when ceasefire was achieved.  In the Eastern Nigeria, protracted conflict among the three contiguous communities of Aguleri, Umuleri and Umuoba-Anam of Anambra State had left the area sordidly lost and properties worth billions of naira were destroyed.

In Warri, Delta State in the mid-western part of the country, a war sparked off between the Ijaw and Itsekiri on the location and relocation of local government headquarters.  More than 30 billion naira both in oil revenue and valuable properties were said to have been lost in the conflict. In Taraba State in the northern part of the country, also experience conflict between some ethnic groups.  It is centered on efforts at the control of Takum by three ethnic group, the Jukum, Chamba and Kutep which dates back to the colonial days.  The crisis centered on conflict of interest between the Jukum (Chamba communities and the Kutep over who ascends the Jukum monarchy (Abiodun, 2009).The Yoruba western part of the country also has been experienced ethnic violence.  In August, 1999, “Area Boys” hijacked the annual Oro Festival in Sagamu in Ogun State.  This broke out between Yoruba and Hausa.  Back in the north, the Hausas staged a revenge attack on the Yoruba with serious ethnic crisis in Kano.

Zango Kataf is a community in the southeast part of Kaduna State and it has occupied a volatile position in the twentieth century history of inter-group conflicts and tension in Northern Nigeria, land ownership was one of the causative agencies of dispute between the Zango Hausa and the Kataf people over the site of their market in 1992.  The land ownership dispute was fuelled by the traditional system in the area favoured the Hausa because the predominant Christian communities and chiefdoms in southern part of the state remain under the control of the Seriki Zauzau (Emir of Zaria).  Over eighteen chiefdoms in the southern part of Kaduna have their loyalty to the Emir, through payment of homage during Muslim festivals.  Despite the claims that the land on which Hausa live was owned by the Kataf and that the Hausa were merely setters.

With the introduction and elevation of Sharia law to the status of the English common law in Zamfara State and Kaduna State in the year 2000 also introduced Sharia law which led to violence in the state (AbdulKadir, 2006).

Conflict and Its Management Strategies

Dialogue is essential to dispel the negative attitude which normally invites a negative response if people involved are not ready to accept the others in love.  Dialogue is expected to dispel the misunderstanding and prejudices of the past created by the negative attitude to other faiths and thereby create a health atmosphere.

Several scholars such as Bur (2001), Jibo, Simbine & Galadima, (2001) and Akume, (2006) as cited by Akume, (2007) indicate that communal conflicts have become endemic in many parts of the country and this has had very adverse effects on the development of the nation in different ramifications.  Conflict refers to incompatibility of goals, ideas or interests either within an individual or between persons and groups. It manifests in the form of struggle, competition, and rivalry for objects to which such groups or individual attach value (Akume, 2007).

Counselling is widely acclaimed as a helping profession which helps individuals to better understand them-selves and their world in order to take rational decisions and courses of action. Therefore, as communal element in the conflict is increasingly gaining ground, then there is need for the services of the professional counsellor to be made available to communities for effective conflict management. If this is done, there will be peaceful co-existence in the country and this will facilitate national stability and integration.

Idowu (1985) described conflict as (1) antecedent conditions (e.g., scarcity of resources, policy differences) of conflictive behavior; (2) affective state (e.g.., stress, tension, hostility anxiety etc) of the individuals involved; (3) cognitive states of individuals i.e., their perception or awareness of conflictive situations; and (4) conflictive behavior, ranging from passive resistance to overt aggression.

In every social or cultural setting, the basic human need is to find meaning for the cause of suffering. Therefore, the clear knowledge that crises are internal response to external events may change the climate of human relationship because the crises of life tend to have social, emotional dimensions rather than physical, psychological, and may also have a spiritual dimension (Adeniran, 2006).   Nigeria’s citizenship question is so much pervasive such that no individual is secured except within his/her origin domain and an attempt to pacify the situation through quota system further aggravate problems of disunity, nepotism, marginalization and constant violence (Adetoro, 2006).

According to Dalung, (2013) the growing tendency for indignity in Nigeria has become the test for rights justice and entitlements, whereas, citizenship should connote residency and element to rights and privileges in a community.  In most of the Nigeria communities there are a lot of discriminations between the immigrants/settlers and the indigenes/natives in economic, social empowerment and political intactions. Regardless of length of years spent by immigrant/settler in a place, he may not be given the right and privilege to contest or be voted for to occupy a political office.  This unconstitutional political denial caused a lot of violence in some places such as Plateau, Nasarawa and Taraba States.  Nigerians will not easily forget Ife Vs Modakeke violence that involved natives and immigrants (Adetoro, 2006).

In some states of Nigeria, non-indigenes seeking a public service job in the midst of the natives, he or she is likely to be employed on contract basis of one to three years.  Educationally, non-indigenes admitted to government schools are likely to pay more than the natives; regardless of length of years his/her parent(s) have spent in the host state (this is applicable in all state-owned Tertiary Institution in Nigeria).On land ownership, non-natives residing in a place rather than theirs are usually subjected to unfavorable conditions.

Conflict can generally be resolved with the following method(s) as suggested by Anderson and Taylor (2002):

–           By adhere strictly to the provision of the law, rules and regulation in dealing with affecting people or group.

–           In a formal organization/setting, manual should be provided to every member to be conversant with institution’s rules and regulations guiding the group.

–           Every member of staff must not reciprocate negative distributive tact’s to manage interpersonal conflict.

–           Every member must recognize that there is a problem and be willing to solve the problem.

–           In an organization, management should take discipline and reward very seriously.

–           Members who contravene the laid down rules and regulations should be promptly disciplined accordingly and those who do well should be rewarded appropriately.

–           Conflict should not be managed alone rather should aim at resolving conflicts to the satisfaction of the contending.

–           Member should be ready to tolerate one another and decisions consciously reached at every level and must be abide with (Geoclinal, 2007).

Adetoro (2006) and Famuyide, (2006) forwarded some management strategies to manage conflict and to achieve national unity:

–           Federal government should restructure nation stability such as:  Creation of local government area should be based on population and economic viability rather than landmass.  The out crying for creation of states and local government areas should be done with aim to redress the imbalance presently experiencing in some quarters.

–           Resource allocation should be readdress in Nigeria and should be based on 50 percent derivation and 50 percent equity.  The principle of derivation should be extended to all other resources that aiding development of the country.

–           The issue of indignity should be outlawed in its totality to ensure peace, stability and national integration.

–           Discrimination in admission, appointment and electoral franchise should be sanctioned and the perpetrators be punished accordingly.

–           Quota system in appointments and admission should be judiciously applied.

–           Citizenship education should be made compulsory subject and taught at primary and post-primary of Nigeria educational system instead of the present system of teaching it at the tertiary level alone to enable individuals who are not opportune to further their education to the tertiary level to imbibe the knowledge of citizenship education.

–           Government officials, political office holders, traditional rulers, youth leaders, religion leaders, and professionals should be encourage to attend seminars, conferences, lectures, and workshops on topics like citizenship education, people and culture of Nigeria, unity in diversity, national identity etc to enhance national interest in the individuals as against religion sentiments, ethnicity, tribalism, nepotism etc.

The editorial comment of the Nigerian Chronicle of March, 10th 1984 opined that the problem of Nigeria is the problem of bringing together cultural and social district groups that made up Nigeria into common umbrella to have the much needed unity. Beginning from amalgamation of Nigeria till date, Nigeria’s have been in strife, conflicts and riots indicating lack of common ideology to exist together.

Some scholars such as Idowu, (1999 & 2001) identified some factors militating against national unity as ethnicity, language barrier, religious bigotry, marginalization, north-south dichotomy, foreign influence, encroachment among other factors.    According to Idowu (2001) and Clifford (2002) development programmes have been affected and hindered as Nigerians identify group of their origin instead of seeing them as representing their cooperate interest.

Tribalism is a permanent feature of federalism in a multi-lingual or multi-cultural or multi-ethnic nation like Nigeria, all “nationalities” in this type of federalism must be equally represented. Political economic and social decisions must reflect their wishes.One tribe lording itself over others goes a long way in shaking to the foundation the cooperate existence of the nation.  The formation of ethnic militarism: Oodua Peoples’ Congress (OPC), Bakassi Boys; Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP); Egbesu Boys etc; all have t;ribal/ethnic undertones.

Religion which is supposed to serve as a regulator in the lives of men is seen as placing barrier between people even of the same decent.  Religious disturbances experienced in Nigeria were many in different parts of Nigeria such as in Kano (Maitasine crises–1980), destruction of churches, lives and property – 1981 and 1982). Maiduguri (Destruction of churches, lives and properties – 1982), Boko Haram Killings (2007 till date); Gombe (2007), Yola (2014), Yobe (2014), Zaria (1981), Kaduna (Sharia crises that produced negative multiplier effect in other parts of the country in Enugu, Aba and Owerri were reprisal killings were carried out on Muslims residing in those states. The least the government could do is to come to terms with the reality of Nigeria’s multi-religions status, recognize religions rights and ensure that religions rights of all Nigeria’s are equally protected (Adeniyi, 2002).

Election into various positions in Nigeria is usually characterized by riots, thuggery, looting, kidnapping, arson and political assassinations.  Nigeria has been experience violent since the general elections of 1954, 1964, 1979, 1983, 1992, 2003.  The youths have been identified to be involved in these violent acts.  Most of the youths voluntarily involved in violent actions to satisfy and protect political or economic interest of their God-fathers.

Causes and Effects of Religions in Tolerance

Difference of religion has probably been responsible for deeper divisions within communities than any other conflict. A number of factors are responsible for this in Nigeria, religions riots which occurred in Kano and Borno States caused by a fanatic who believed in enforcing their beliefs on others. The diverse interpretations of doctrines within the same religion are other causes of religions’ intolerance.  The killings experiencing in Nigeria now is that of “Boko Haram” set (the set believe that “Western education is forbidding”). They kills thousands of people, buildings were razed to the ground and properties destroyed in Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, and Kano States.

Other causative agents of religion intolerance in Nigeria include kind of indoctrination, and conversion campaigns. Historically, religion teaching by various bodies was seen as an act of the evangelical work.  In Nigeria, religion determines many things and causing a lot of problem in areas of award of contract, election, employment, admission of students and award of scholarship, mention but just a few.     The consequences of religion intolerance encourage disunity, national instability, underdevelopment, political instability, among others.  Any nation where religion intolerance operates, meaningful development in terms of high manpower, transfer of knowledge, accountability, and efficiency will not be experienced.

The alarming rate at which religions violence rears its ugly head in the Nigerian society leave much to desire, despite the faces that worshipers of the major religions in Nigeria agreed that the epicenter of their religion is peace. The religion violence in Nigeria has called for institutionalized of tribunals to investigate the possible causes and solutions as might be deemed necessary by the government(s), for example, the tribunal of inquiry of Kano disturbance in 1981; the commission of inquiry into the Bullu Kuttu religion disturbance in 1982, and the Karibi-Whyte civil disturbances special tribunal in 1987.

Counsellor can help individual gain insight into the origins and development of emotional difficulties leading to an increase capacity to take rational control over feelings and actions (NTI, 2006):

*          Counsellor can assist individuals in moving towards the direction of fulfilling the potentials or achieving an integration of previously conflicting parts of themselves or of their communities.

*          Through counselling individuals can be provided with skills, awareness and knowledge which will enable them to confront socially made inadequacies.

*          To help people develop decision-making skills.

National stability and integration can be achieved through counselling with the use of various counselling techniques.

*          The counselling techniques for training individual to be able to integrate properly into the modus operandi of a group is known as “Group dynamic”. It will help the individual learn to participate in group activities, accept other members and define himself properly in the group as a significant part that will lead to stability, integration and peaceful co-existence.

*          Guidance and counselling games (simulation game) can be used by professional counsellors for were training individual the etiquette befitting a perfect gentleman; to be peaceful in his interpersonal relationship, to expose the individual to skills of problem solving.  Hence, this technique of counselling if properly used, it will help on how to express views peacefully and accept other’s view without rancor, to give room for peace and unity.

*          Marathon group as a technique for professional counsellors can also be used to trains the members to be patience, enduring, persevering on the face of situational and environmental pressures.  It is a known fact that most of problems of interpersonal conflict come from the inability of people involved to cope with the demands and over bearing pressure of the environment.  However, with the knowledge of group members on the rules guiding a typical marathon group, the individual member would have been properly fortified to relate peaceful with other members in of their society without acrimony hence it leading to achievement of national stability and integration.

Professional counsellor will give tremendous assistance to the clubs societies and associations to be able to achieve their set aims and objectives, through counselling on how to achieve their groups’ objectives, since they are legal and harmless groups. These groups include Rotary Club, Islamic Organizations, Christian Organization, Students Unions, and Professional Unions, just to mention but a few. Irrespective of their individual ideology, family background or personal bias, the members would be able to live together as a united and a strong family who are ready to share the problem of one another through brain-storming and effective group counselling. This will invariably bring about the philosophy of National Unity (AbdulKadir, 2006).

Nigeria is not yet a united country due to the problems of disputes on the bases of religion, politics, land, resource control, ethnic and other differences.  There should be equity and fairness in employment distribution and job creation agenda policies and that would boost food production, provision of social amenities, good and affordable is pursed and enacted.

Counselling Implications

            Experience in real life has shown that conflict may not be completely eradicated or minimized in any social system. But emphasis has been shifted from the avoidance of conflict to it effective management in order to produce positive result. The need therefore, has arisen to find appropriate approaches and techniques to manage conflict in Nigeria so as to create a conducive atmosphere for national stability and integration.

Therefore, counsellors should see the need for promoting ethnic cooperation and tolerance among the citizens of Nigeria through public awareness program. Counsellors should invite erudite scholars and well known and respected personalities from different ethnic cultural backgrounds to share their worth of experience on how to enhance national stability and integration with the use of our diversities for the unity and cooperate existence of our country. According to Clifford (2002) when such issues are brought to the open and discussed in a non-threatening atmosphere as in group counselling, they will go a long way informing and educating Nigeria people on the need to be nationalistic in outlook and breed national integration.

Counsellors should employ mass-media to enlighten the Nigerian populace on the need for religion and political tolerance since Nigeria by statute is a secular state. The masses of the people should be re-orientated and mobilized by the professional counsellors on the needs for communal stability in the interest of development peace and tranquility.

Counsellors in the school setting should strive towards assisting the youths from different ethnic groups to develop a healthy and cooperative attitude toward one another. Counsellor can also detribalize youth through the use of group activities for students from different tribal and ethnic backgrounds. The youths who are usually used as thugs could be enlightened to see the dangers that are likely to affect them by engaging in such unwholesome act.  They could be counselled towards being assertive to a work behind allegiance to their political fathers that do not mean any good for them.

It will be of interest of the nation if professional counsellors use various medium to call for inclusion of constitution learning in institution of learning to learn 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria political objectives.  This is due to the fact that with the political objectives, it will encourage national integration and prohibit discrimination.

It is the responsibility of the counsellors of the century to organize inter-religious dialogue at every level-local, state and federal especially for Christians and Muslims professional and practice, the threat of scientific atheism, the rapid growth of secularization and people’s increasing interest in materialism have put question mark on the credibility of spiritualistic ideologies and religion. It is very much imperative on the part of all religions to find out a common response, hence organizing religion dialogue by the Nigeria counsellors is indispensable.



AbdulKadir, O. (2006). Guidance and counselling service: The panacea to the spirit of national unity among Nigeria students. Nigerian Educational Digest, 9 (1), 112-119.

Abiodun, V. A. (2009). Ethnic conflict in contemporary Africa: the Nigerian experience. Journal of Teacher Education Trend, 3 (1), 53-58.

Adekunle, M. A. C. (1976). National language policy and planning: The Nigeria situation. In C.M.B. Branny (ed.) West African Journal of Modern Languages, (1), 26-30.

Adeniran, A. (2006). Psychological view of cases submitted to Nigeria Journal of Education Studies and Research, 3 (2), 12-17.

Adetoro, R. A. (2006). Citizenship question and quota system as sources of conflict in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Education Studies and Research, 3 (6), 42-49.

Adeniyi, A. A. (2002).Inter-religious dialogue: The only solution to religious intolerance in Nigeria. Ilorin Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 3 (1), 148-158.

Akinade, E. A. (2005). Dictionary of guidance and counselling (Counselling Psychology). Lagos: Olu-Akin Publishers.

Akume, G.T.C. & Achier, D. F. (2007). Managing Communal Conflicts for Political Stability in Benue State: The counsellor, 23.

Anderson, M.L. & Taylor, H. F. (2002). Sociology understanding a diverse society. Belmount, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson learning inc.

Arikewuyo, A. I. (1998). Muslims and Religion tolerance in Nigeria.  Ilorin Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 1 (1), 87-96.

Clifford, N. (2002).Groups list ways to curb ethno religious crisis. The Guardian, Lagos: January pp9.

Dalung, S. (2013). Peaceful co-existence, conflict management and national in Nigeria. The Journal to Somalia. Retrieved on 6th July, 2013 from  Html? = 1.

David, T. J. & Kalu N. A. (2001). Education, Ethnicity and National integration in the history of Nigeria continuing problem of Africa’s Colonial legacy. The journal of Negro History, 86 (1), Retrieved on 6th July, 2015 from Library (Journal).The New Swatch, Lagos, August 30 1999, pp15.

Famuyide, S. O. (2006). Reducing the problem of ethnicity in Nigeria through Citizenship Education Studies.  Journal of Educational, 1 (2), 108-133.

Geoclinal, M. E. (2007). Constraints to one unity as perceived by selected adults in Ilorin metropolis: Implications for counselling. Sokoto Education Review, 9 (1), 53-65.

Idowu, A. I. (1985). Managing conflicts in Universities: A group dynamic approach Ilorin Journal of Education (2), 60-63.

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NTI (2006). Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE BY DLS). Published by NTI Kaduna.





























Prof. Adebayo Issah RAHEEM


[email protected]

Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin


Dr. Abdul-Hameed Akorede ZAKKARIYAH


[email protected]

Director Quality Assurance Unit

Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin






[email protected]

Department of Educational Foundations

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto



The objective of education is to provide opportunities for students to reach their full potentials in the area of educational, vocational, social and emotional development. The appraisal of guidance and counselling services in providing adequate guidance for Nigerian students in tertiary institutions is therefore of paramount importance. This paper hence, focused on the concept of guidance and counselling, objectives of guidance and counselling services, benefits of guidance and counselling programmes in the tertiary institution, basic requirement for guidance programme in tertiary institution, qualities of an effective counsellor and roles and functions of the counsellors. This paper identified factors of functional school guidance and counselling programme that could enhance positive results. It was further suggested that effective and efficient implementation of the guidance programme in the tertiary institutions should be given appropriate attention with a realistic consideration of the infrastructural necessities for the counsellors to play their roles effectively.


Keywords: Requirement for Counselling, Qualities of Counsellor, Roles and Functions of the Counsellors.


Tertiary institution, a post-secondary section of the national education system of Nigeria, was set up to include Universities, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics, Colleges of Technology and Universities of Technology (FGN, 2013). To ensure a success of tertiary institution in Nigeria, the National Man-power Board and Academic Planning Committee among others were set up by the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide monitors and guide so as to meet Nigerians manpower requirement.

Inspite of the efforts of the government of Nigeria towards establishing effective higher education system in the 20th century, problems still abound. Observed problems and challenges of undergraduates include examination mal-practice, poverty, general indiscipline, alcoholism, substance abuse, immoral and risky sexual acts, indecent dressing, poor reading culture, cultism, delinquency, vandalism among others (Adegoke in Ogunsanmi, 2014). These observed problems and many more not mentioned could be categorized into personal-psychological problems, physical development and health problems, social relationship problems, academic problems and problems of finance and future concerns (Ogunsanmi, 2014).

It is worthy of note that apart from these perceived problems on campuses, students and undergraduates’ behavioural problems have increased in the recent times and this has bothered administrators of Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education institutions (Abdulkareem in Sambo, 2013). Therefore, this paper makes an attempt to highlight the benefit of guidance and counselling services in ensuring the success of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

The objective of education is to provide opportunities for students to reach their full potentials in the area of educational, vocational, social and emotional development. Thus, guidance and counselling is the bedrock for achieving self-actualization. Guidance according to Tambawal (2014), means to direct, pilot, manage, steer, aid, assist, lead and interact while Counselling is a professional assistance offered to an individual by a trained counselling psychologist to help the individual solve his developmental adjustment problem (Fakunle, 2011).   Counselling is a professional and confidential relationship between a guidance counsellor and the client that is facilitated in order to find a lasting solution to the challenges of the client which is beyond his or her capacity. This shows that developmental challenges being faced by an individual can be resolved through counselling, which will lead to better adjustment.

From the above, guidance is combination of services, while counselling is just one service under guidance. Durojaiye in Oluremi (2017) described counselling as the process whereby the person to be counselled can come to understand himself, so that he can solve his own problems. According to him, guidance services including counselling enhance self-understanding of one’s educational, social, moral emotional, physical, and vocational needs. Modo (2008) defined counselling as a helping relationship between the counsellor and the counselee. It is aimed at helping the counsellee adjust properly to family, school, peer association, and society in general.

Sambo (2013) opined that counselling focuses basically on areas of nurturing and healing emotionally, problem management, decision making, crisis management, support and life skills training. Okonkwo and Anagbogu (2008) opined that counselling is a process of helping a troubled person to understand himself and his work so as to feel and behave in more personally satisfying manner. The importance of guidance and counselling as a panacea to students challenges has been recognized throughout the globe. This is because of its efficacy in assisting the individual to discover their needs, interest and capabilities in order to formulate their own goals and make plans to realize them.

Objectives of Guidance and Counselling Services

The Counselling-Main in Oluremi (2017) stated the objectives of Guidance and Counselling as follows:

  1. Assisting people to maximize their overall growth, academic and personal-social problems, and challenges for all round development.
  2. Assisting the students to identify and recognize their interest, values, abilities and capacities, skills and positive personality traits and to match these with their chosen careers.
  3. Equipping students with knowledge, values, experiences and prepare them for the world of work or self-employment.
  4. Equipment, promoting and developing training programmes which will enhance Student’s employment ability.
  5. Training students to be effective and skillful through entrepreneurship training.
  6. Providing student’s with relevant job information and bridging the gap between them and the job market.
  7. Developing ways of improving communication and feedback with stakeholders namely; students, staff (academic and nonacademic), Deans of faculties, Head of Departments, Dean of Students Affairs, Director of Medical Health services and Chairman Students Disciplinary Committee.
  8. Organizing training workshops and seminars on career and occupational information, study habits and personal-social traits.
  9. Organizing students/parents and communities forum and dialogue with them. Becoming a model student’s guidance and counselling centre for other centres to emulate.
  10. The counselling centre need to plan and coordinate guidance oriented activities to meet the needs of the students. The professional guidance counsellor shall carry out the following functions or duties to the students.

The counselling centre according to Durojaiye in Oluremi (2017) should plan activities to meet the growing needs of students in the University, Polytechnic, and College of Education, such as:

  1. Enhancing study skills of the students
  2. Attaining individuality
  • Enhancing entrepreneurship
  1. Developing a concept of values and desirable behaviours
  2. Making plans for future living and working
  3. Establishing personal relationship with individuals of both sexes
  • Learning to attain adult status by making vocational plans, family, social relationships and citizenship plans.
  • Combating unrest in the university
  1. Fighting against decline in morality and teaching work ethics and habits.

Benefits of Counselling Programmes in the Tertiary Institutions

The comprehensive developmental school counselling programmes have positive impact on students, parents, teachers, administrators, boards of education, other student services personnel, school counsellors, business, and industry (Oregun Department of Education cited in Oluremi, 2017). The benefits to each of these groups according to Oluremi include the following;


Benefits for Students

  1. Prepares students for the challenges of the 21st century through academic, career, and personal/social development.
  2. Relates educational program to future success.
  3. Facilitates career exploration and development.
  4. Develops decision-making and problem solving skills.
  5. Assists in acquiring knowledge of self and others.
  6. Enhances personal development.
  7. Assists in developing effective interpersonal relationship skills.
  8. Broadens knowledge of our changing world.
  9. Provides advocacy for students.
  10. Encourages facilitative, co-operative peer interactions.
  11. Fosters resiliency factors for students.
  12. Assures equitable access to educational opportunities.

Benefits for Parents:

  1. Provides support for parents in advocating for their child’s academic, career, and personal/social development.
  2. Develops a system for their child’s long range planning and learning.
  3. Increases opportunities for parent/school interaction.
  4. Enables parents to access school and community resources.

Benefits for Teachers:

  1. Provides an interdisciplinary team effort to address student needs and educational goals.
  2. Provides skill development for teachers in classroom management, teaching effectiveness and effective education.
  3. Provides consultation to assist teachers in their guidance role.

Benefits for Administrators:

  1. Integrates school counselling with the academic mission of the school.
  2. Provides a program structure with specific content.
  3. Assists administration to use school counsellors effectively to enhance learning and development for all students.
  4. Provides a means of evaluating school counselling programs.

Benefits for Boards and Departments of Education:

  1. Provides rationale for implementing a comprehensive developmental counselling program in the school system.
  2. Provides assurance that a quality counselling program is available to all students.
  3. Demonstrates the necessity of appropriate levels of funding for implementation.
  4. Supports appropriate credentialing and staffing.
  5. Provides a basis for determining funding allocations for school counselling programs.
  6. Furnishes programme information to the community.
  7. Gives ongoing information about student competencies and standards for excellence attained through school counselling program efforts.

Benefits for School Counsellors:

  1. Provides a clearly defined role and function.
  2. Reduces non-counselling functions.
  3. Provides direct service to all students.
  4. Provides a tool for program management and accountability.
  5. Enhances the role of the school counsellor as a student advocate.
  6. Ensures involvement in the academic mission of the school.


Benefits for Students Services:

  1. Provides school psychologists, social workers, and other professional student services personnel with a clearly defined role of the school counsellor.
  2. Clarifies areas of overlapping responsibilities.
  3. Fosters a positive team approach, which enhances cooperative working relationships.

Basic Requirement for Guidance Programme in Tertiary Institution

The effective and efficient implementation of the guidance programme in our tertiary institutions will remain a mirage without the realistic consideration of the infrastructural necessities for the counsellors to play their roles effectively. For an efficient and smooth discharge of these roles and functions, the provisions of the following facilities as identified by Tambawal (2014) are required:

  1. Professional Qualified Counsellor(s): This is the most crucial and foremost requirement if and wherever guidance programme is to be set up in a school. He initiates coordinates and even runs the programme. He is that man that is trained in the area of guidance and counselling and has therefore, become competent to handle the programme.
  2. Accommodation: This is a room or two specifically prepared for counselling where no other thing is done or where no teaching of the normal curriculum or any administrative work is done other than guidance services. The space meant for this programme should be such that all materials for guidance and counselling are kept there because counsellors are expected to deal with their clients in a rather secluded place so that confidentialities (secrets) are not easily let out.

iii.        Finance: Fund is an essential ingredient to the success of any organization. To make guidance programme succeed, it is crucial to make money available to the office for the purchase of items and anything for that matter, that would be needed for the smooth running of the programme.

  1. Career Library: This may not necessarily mean a whole room packed full of books and other items. It could be a section of the counsellor’s office, where books on career, adjustment, maladjustment, cassettes and clips are neatly arranged and made ready for students’ use.

Qualities of an Effective Counsellor

First and foremost, it is pertinent to understand in a clear term the two major components, that is, the term “counsellor” and the concept “quality”. The term “counsellor” in this context, simply refers to one who engages in guidance and counselling activities having received formal training and certificated in the field of guidance and counselling or counselling psychology. The concept “quality” refers to the attribute which makes a thing what it is or worthwhile. Ogbole in Isaac and Tijani (2008) viewed quality as the character or attribute of an object by reason of which it is valued by those who deserve it. It also refers to the traits, attitude or behaviour that is cherished in an object or human being.

Since all aforementioned reasons are to be accomplished within a guidance and counselling process by the guidance counsellor, it therefore becomes necessary for guidance counsellors to possess additional qualities apart from their academic qualifications. Thus, Haurin and Paulson in Salawu (2014: 17) listed what they considered as qualities and characteristics a counsellor should have to facilitate effective counselling. These qualities are:

  1. Emphatic understanding
  2. Friendliness
  • Stability
  1. Sympathetic attitude
  2. Sense of humour
  3. Patience
  • Objectivity
  • Tactful
  1. Tolerance
  2. Calmness
  3. Social intelligence
  • Poise
  • Sincerity
  • Fairness
  1. Neatness
  • Broadmindedness
  • Pleasantness

Roles and Functions of the Counsellor in the Tertiary Institution

Idowu in Sambo (2013) highlighted the expected roles of counsellors and their functions in Nigerian schools. They are as follows:

  1. The Counsellor Plays the Role of a Professional and Specialist in Counselling

Counselling is the main domain of the school counsellor and anything that has to do with this service must be performed by the counsellor. The counsellor is expected to devote a great deal of his/her time to counselling. Just in the same way that a teacher in a school is employed to guide and stimulate students’ learning, so also is a school counsellor employed to use his/her skills to assist students, to resolve their everyday problems or conflicts which have been, or may be, obstructing their search for learning. In individual counselling, the school counsellor seeks to assist students on a one-to-one basis to resolve problems and concerns of an educational vocational, social, emotional or moral nature under optimal conditions of confidentiality and mutual trust. In essence, helping students to become more fully aware of themselves and the ways in which they respond to the influences of the environment is basically the sole responsibility of the counsellor. It is known that students enter into schools with various problems emanating from their homes, within the community or at school and counsellors should be able to use the wealth of skills and resources to help them gain insight into these concerns. It may be prudent for school counsellors to use the group approach to an advantage when it may be impossible to reach all students because of the large size of most schools.

Group counselling also has the advantage of use because the group climate conforms to our strong African traditional background of groupness which helps to make students feel more at home. That several students with varying backgrounds and experiences are assembled together may help to indicate to them (students) that they are not alone with their problems (universality) and this helps to quicken their recovery. Under no circumstances should counselling with students and/or staff be left to paraprofessionals or other auxiliary staff members. All professional counsellors are assumed to have undergone sound train in the use of various skills and they should learn to put such skills into use in their roles as counsellors (Idowu in Sambo, 2013).

  1. The Counsellor Plays the Role of a Curriculum Planner

Counsellors should be active in the development, and implementation of school curriculum activities and programmes designed to facilitate students’ development. Counsellors should be involved in, all stages of curriculum development and the professional body, e.g. CASSON, should take a position regarding the operation of any curricular innovation. It is gratifying to note that guidance and counselling programmes of Nigerian universities are housed in Education Faculties. So, it can be reasonably assumed that counselling practitioners cannot be said to be totally ignorant of the processes involved in curriculum planning and implementation. Counsellor education programmes of Nigerian universities should design specific courses in curriculum planning and development for their trainees for the purpose of familiarizing them with these skills.

Counsellors should be more active in schools by suggesting to authorities innovative and more pragmatic activities that can make students’ learning more rewarding. Extra-curricular activities are educative and they can be meaningfully structured to serve a complementary function to the school curriculum. The counsellor who takes an active part in the formation and running of clubs and associations is more likely to understand students better as he/she gains an insight of the student’s potentialities inside and outside the classroom (Idowu in Sambo, 2013).

  1. The Counsellor Plays the Role of a Test and Measurement Expert

Tests are used in schools as a means of evaluation and of determining individual student’s needs. When tests are seen only in the narrow perspective of examinations and quizzes, they become anxiety producing and they may tend to scare students and parents. Counsellors are expected to play a significant role in the accumulation, development and effective use of meaningful data through the use of tests and non-test devices for the smooth implementation of the continuous assessment of students at all levels of education. Continuous assessment information provides a useful tool in helping to make transition decisions on students from one level to the other to further education or employment.

Counsellor appraises students through diagnosis. All the vital information needed in helping students to understand their strengths and weaknesses, abilities, interests and interpersonal relationships are derived through testing. It is the responsibility of counsellors to construct local and standardized tests where necessary. Counsellors are expected to have been trained in test construction and instrument development and such knowledge should be put to practical use in schools (Idowu in Sambo, 2013).


  1. The Counsellor Plays the Role of a Career Developer

The school system provides a medium through which students can be trained toward a goal, which usually ends up in a career. The school counsellor with a developmental purpose prepares students using their educational resources to attain a career choice. This is done through:

  1. Information: by providing useful and purposeful information by which students can make effective and sound educational and career decisions. Knowing the type of courses that are available in the institution and gaining insight into some educational and career information that school counsellors can provide.
  2. Orientation: by giving needed information with a guide as to the use of such information makes it relatively easy for students to adjust to new environments or situations. Newly admitted students are introduced to schools through orientation programmes designed to cover their adjustment to classrooms, the boarding house and library. Counselling which is concerned with the understanding and adjustment of individuals within their environment for self-growth underscores the need for counsellors to partake in orientation programmes.
  3. Vocational development and career education: by mounting activities such as career talks, career trips, symposia and students are able to learn to make meaning out of their educational pursuits. Counsellors should, apart from these activities, guide students on how to complete job forms; they should teach students interviewing skills and keep a listing of job agencies and vacancies that exist within the community.
  4. Placement: by assisting students who have completed educational requirements at prescribed school levels, counsellors are able to seek assistance from industries, governmental agencies or private employers in creating job opportunities or placing students according to their capabilities.

In fulfilling the placement function, counsellors need to teach students various skills relating to employment, job-seeking and job-getting; staying on the job; writing application letters or filling application forms and interviewing (Idowu in Sambo, 2013).

  1. The Counsellor Plays the Role of a Community Change Agent

The counsellor is a helping professional who advances the personal development of individuals. When he/she does this in and out of the school for the benefit of students, staff, parents and the community, then he/she becomes an agent of change for the community. This the counsellor does by maintaining community contacts to be able to identify resources which are useful for individual student development and for effective change in behaviour. The counsellor maintains a list of referral agencies and personnel within the community to which students can be referred. The counsellor acts as the public relations officer to the school by interpreting test results to interested parties, by .publishing school materials that can be of benefit to both the school and the community and by helping to clarify issues on students matters which are of a developmental nature (Idowu in Sambo, 2013).

The guidance and counselling programme is an integral part of a school’s total educational programme; it is developmental by design focusing on needs, interests, and issues related to various stages of students growth. The scope of the developmental guidance and counselling programme in today’s tertiary institutions include the following components (Cooley, 2010; Coy, 2004):

Personal/Social: Counsellors are expected to do personal and crisis counselling. Problems such as dropping out, substance abuse, suicide, irresponsible sexual behaviour, eating disorders, and pregnancy must be addressed.

Educational: Students must develop skills that will assist them as they learn. The counsellor, through classroom guidance activities and individual and group counselling can assist students in applying effective study skills, setting goals, learning effectively, and gaining test taking skills. Counsellors also may focus on note taking, time management, memory techniques, relaxation technique, overcoming test anxiety, and developing listening skills.

Career: Planning for the future, combating career stereotyping, and analyzing skills and interests are some of the goals must develop in school. Career information must be available to students, and representatives from business and industry must work closely with the school and the counsellor in preparing students for the world of work.


This paper appraised the concept of guidance and counselling, objectives of guidance and counselling services, benefits of guidance and counselling programmes in the tertiary institutions, basic requirement for guidance programme in tertiary institution, qualities of an effective counsellor and roles and functions of the counsellors. The paper also identified factors of functional school guidance and counselling services in tertiary institutions  that could provide parents, teachers, administrators, boards and departments, school counsellors, business industry, school community and students with opportunities to reach their full potentials in the area of educational, vocational, social and emotional development..


The effective and efficient implementation of the guidance programme in the tertiary institutions should be given appropriate attention with a realistic consideration of the infrastructural necessities for the counsellors to play their roles effectively.

Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), counselling psychologist, social workers, policies makers and significant others should realize the need to come up with fitting policies and initiatives that could help individuals to discover their needs, interest and capabilities in order to formulate their own goals and make plans to realize them.

The tertiary institution administrators should put in place functional counselling centres, so as to avail the students the opportunity of being attended to and help develop skills that would enable them adjusts to their immediate challenges and cope with the rigors of the school environment.



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Coy, D. R. (2004).Developmental guidance and counselling in today’s schools. Alexandra, VA: National Association of Secondary Schools.

Fakunle, J. O. (2011). Academic success and a happy career. A psychological Approach. Ibadan Positve.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2013). National policy on eduation. Lagos: NERDC Press.

Idowu A. I. (1989). The role of the school counsellor and his functions within the school community. Ilorin Journal of Education, 9, 1-15.

Isaac, A.M. & Tijani, O. (2008). Teacher education: A concern for quality in the 21st century Nigerian schools. A paper presented at the 4th annual National conference organized by Faculty of Education, University of Maiduguri. Borno state.

Modo, F. N. (2008). Counselling services for excellent academic performance among adolescents in secondary schools in UYO, Akwa- Ibom. Conference Proceedings of Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON).

Ogunsanmi, J. O. (2011). Problems needing counselling in women education for self-actualization and sustainability among female undergraduates in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Education, 3(3), 58 – 62.

Ogunsanmi, J. O. (2014). Problems needing counselling in higher education in the 21st century in Nigeria. The Counsellor, 33(1), 34 – 41.

Okonkwo, M. C. & Anagbogu, M. A. (2008). Role of teachers in promoting positive mental health for national development: Implication for counselling. Conference Proceedings of Counselling Association ofNigeria (CASSON).

Oluremi, F. D. (2017). Functional guidance and counselling centre in tertiary institution. The   Journal of International Social Research, 7(31), 697-705.

Salawu, A.A. (2014). Principles and practice in guidance and counselling. Unpublished manuscript, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

Sambo, S. (2013). Understanding guidance and counselling. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited.

Tambawal, M.U. (2014). Organization and administration of guidance services. Unpublished manuscript, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.






Tajudeen Suleman APE

[email protected]



Ahmed Rukaiya SAAD

[email protected]



Taiye Hassan AHMED

[email protected]


Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria



Saadu Uthman ALIMI


[email protected]

Kwara State Universal Basic Education




This paper examined the effect of corruption and insecurity on the national development of the society. The aim is to assess the impact of corruption on national development and also to investigate effect of insecurity on the national development.  Its primary focus is to know whether corruption and insecurity are major determinants of achievable national development. In doing so, the concept of corruption, insecurity and the meaning of national development are examined. The paper also examined the causes of corruption and national security challenges in Nigeria. Other issues discussed in the paper included injustice, poverty, poor health care delivery services, decayed and collapsed infrastructure, environmental degradation and socio-religious crises. The paper analyzed the negative impacts of corruption and insecurity on national development. It was suggested that the issue of corruption must be fought with all the state arsenals including the political will to fight the scourge to finish by bringing to book, all the corrupted office holders. Political crises must be resolved. Equal allocation of national resources must prevail among others. This will bring about peaceful coexistence among citizens and maximum security that will facilitate national development will be achieved.

Key Words: Corruption, Insecurity, National Development.


Corruption, insecurity and national development are like a co-join triplets that can-not be separated from one another. The incorruptible society enjoys maximum security of live and properties of its citizens. With maximum security of live and properties, there will be relative peace of mind which is the pre-requisite for innovation that ginger the socio-economic activities one can talk of, be hyperactive, productive and so on. Security on the other hands is the determinants of development of any society. According to Igbogo (2015), inability to use the appropriate tools in analyzing Nigeria’s national security problems right from the colonial period till date is the reason for the difficulties in our national security. The national security problems of Nigeria hinge on the factors of the nation’s economic underdevelopment, which has led to social injustice, acute food shortage, population explosion low level of productivity and unemployment just to mention a few. Any country that seeks to achieve adequate security against the background of acute food shortage, population, low level of productivity, fragile infrastructure base for technological development, inadequate and inefficient public utilities and chronic problem of unemployment has a false sense of security. Many of the developed countries of the world like US, UK, China, etc. are at least have low level of corruption and also enjoys maximum security that facilitate socio-economic growth which resulted into achieving national development.

Concept of Corruption

As the social scientists would say, concepts do not have universally accepted definitions. For instance, what constitutes corruption in a particular society may be termed “gratification” or “gifts” in another.  Similarly, while some societies hand out capital punishments for corruption, some other societies promote lesser punishments including systematic forgiveness for corrupt public officials. Hence, this simple differentiation in understanding explains the multiplicity in definitions of both corruption and national security (Oladele, 2013).

Corruption according to ICPC Act (section 2), includes vices like bribery, fraud, and other related offences. Corruption is the abuse or misuses of power or position of trust for personal or group benefit (monetary or otherwise). Corruption is a symptom of numerous difficulties within contemporary societies. It usually involves more than one party. It takes a form of an organized crime. At times, an organization can be established on corruption. Gbenga (2008) asserts that corruption is contagious. According to the perception index of Transparency International, Nigeria was ranked 144th out of the 146 countries, beating Bangladesh and Haiti to last position. An analysis of the anti-graft.anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the laws because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences. Ayobami (2011) observed that corruption is found in the award of contracts, promotion of staff, dispensation of justice, and misuse of public offices, positions and privileges, embezzlement of public funds, public books, publications, documents, valuable security, and accounts. Corruption can be systematic in nature and affect the whole life of a country and national development.

Three scholars have managed to summarise the various definitions of corruption. In a bid to explain corruption, Heildenheimer, Johnston and LeVine (1989) identified three definitions of corruption namely: the public-office centred, the market-centred and the public interest centred definitions. For the trio, the public-office centred perception views corruption as an act of misuse of public office for personal gains while market-centred definitions situate the act of corruption in terms of its being an extra-legal act used by individuals or groups to influence actions of bureaucracy. The public-interest-centred definition views corruption mainly as a damager of public interest in which case the very act of corruption negatively impact public interest.

Based on the definition, numerous types of corruption have been identified. Among these are supportive corruption, transactional corruption, extortive corruption, political corruption, defensive corruption, invective corruption, nepotistic corruption, autogenic corruption, personal and institutional corruption traditional and modern corruption, grand and petty corruption. The massive looting of public treasury in the country has led to high rate of unemployment which result to increase in crime rate and insecurity of life and properties.

Meaning of Security

Security is the protection of live and properties of the citizens and society from both internal and external aggressions through the use of state security apparatus established by law. According to Igbogo (2015), the term “security” may be looked at as a state of being protected from danger or anxiety. For a nation, security connotes conditions of peace, stability, order and progress. National security has been construed in different ways, each of which emphasized vital factors underlying ideals. Asad (2007) says that national security cannot be narrowed down to exclusively military term. Socio economic and cultural aspects, problems of development and modernization, and national integration should be deemed important in considering.

National security question involves a lot of issues. It practically touches all spheres of human existence. The best way to approach it is from the systems theory perspective where a dislocation in any particular area of the system is bound to have an overlapping effect on other areas. It ranges from food security to issues of environmental degradation. It touches on health matters. It encompasses psychological security as well as arms security.

A number of factors may expose a nation to danger. To that extent, national security may also be viewed as a multidimensional process whose purpose is to safeguard national values. The most fundamental values of any nation is its survival, self-preservation, and self-perpetuation. A nation that is capable of protecting herself from harm equally enjoys immense capacity for enviable development. We may therefore posit that national security and national development are complementary and inseparable phenomena. They are mutually related. There can be security without real development and no development without security. It is vice-versa. Therefore, national development can be anchored on security. For instance, the case of violence like ethnic crises, vandalism of pipes and electrical poles, armed robberies, kidnapping and others that cannot be mentioned, have hindered development of some infrastructures and foreign investment.

Concept of National Development

Scholars have variously perceived the subject of development. May (2004) defined it from the perspective of institutional framework especially of those created by Western Ideologies. Others perceived it as a one-dimensional process and to that extent encouraged the pursuit of economic programmes that seem to compete with western industrialized countries in the level of economic attainment. At other times, we observe countries merely importing political system that are successful in western environment without reference to the requisite civil culture necessary to sustain them. An example is the British Westminster system and the American Presidential system of government that Nigeria borrowed. These perspectives see the western countries as models for development. Development is more than the provision of physical infrastructure.

Amucheazi (1980) was of the opinion that “development is realistically seen as a multi-dimensional process involving the totality of man in his political, economic, psychological and social realities among others”. Development is a holistic phenomenon not a concept to be abridged in application or compartmentalized and approached as a uni-dimensional process. Essentially it should be man-oriented and not institutional-oriented. If we focus our attention on the individual citizens we can then think of what he needs at a particular time and how he can combat a number of colonial legacies which have held him down.

Development, more importantly must be conceived in the context of a particular social system. In other words, it is wrong and indeed injurious to conceive of development in terms of system or system suited for a different cultural milieu. Ake (1972) was even more radical in his declarations. He argued that: We ought to reject the concept of development. Instead of development we could think in terms of liberation…. If we think in terms of liberation we can accept that we are not all that we ought to be without necessarily feeling inferior to someone else… or committing ourselves blindly to the path that someone else has taken.

From the above assertion, we can see what national development is all about. Meanwhile, Ogai (2003) sees national development as:

A gradual manifestation of positive changes in the economic, industrial, political, social, cultural and administrative life of a country. He also went further to say that in viewing the progress of a country, the term national development is more comprehensive than economic growth. It involves high quality and large quantity of productive resources as well as efficiency in using them.

When we talk about national development we are concerned about quality improvement in the various sectors of our national life such as the political, ethical, socio-psychological, and economic spheres of national existence, which combined, to define and assure quality and productive existence for the citizens of a country. It is the accelerated economic, administrative, social, political, cultural and industrial changes in a condition considered desirable to achieve the progress of civilization. The crucial element in national development is the constant and joint effort by the citizenry to harness the force of nature and human potentials for their own material well-being.

In respect to the above opinions, corrupt tendencies among individuals and insecurity are the determinant of national development of any nation.

Causes of Corruption and Insecurity

Corruption is a happy bed-mate with injustice. In point of fact corruption provided the fuel for injustice and where two meet, the resultant effect is crisis. Crisis is coronary to insecurity such as insecurity of life, insecurity of property, insecurity of morals and ethics. They produce fertile ground for decay. Decay is not development. Decry connotes degeneration, deterioration and eventual death.

A nation that is riddled with crisis and insecurity can hardly make progress. For one, genuine investors are scared away from such counties. This has in large part become the burden of governments in Nigeria. Government officials either at the states or federal level who have been wooing foreign investors for foreign direct investments have always had the issues of the state of national security dominating their discussions with foreign investors rather than the potentials and opportunities that exists in the state. The foreign direct investor profile of Nigeria for the period 1999-2016 aptly reflects the dire economic consequences face by a nation riddled with insecurity.

The increasing nature of insurgency, terrorism, arm robbery, kidnappings, corruption and ethnic crisis and many more in Nigeria constitute a devastating threat to security to life and property. Lack of security of lives and property of the citizenry is a severe hindrance to meaningful development. A climate of fear will frighten domestic and foreign investors. At the heart of many of these conflicts is access to resources and control over the distribution of benefits. This struggle for resources has led to a broad sense of insecurity, opportunism, and the pursuit of self- help strategies across the country. Some of the causes of violence include god fatherism, poverty, unemployment, money and politics, corruption, small arms proliferation, the rise of armed groups, religious based violence and election fraud. These issues represent dividing lines in communities that have led to heightened tensions between and within groups.

Perhaps death of an entire system apart from injustice and corruption other areas that galvanize a state of insecurity in Nigeria include;


Poverty may be in such intangible area as knowledge or ideas. It may also be in the area of lack of basic necessities of life such as food shelter, clothing and good health care, a hungry man, an adage says, is an angry man. An angry man may not be in the habit of exhibiting a sense of poverty that is affecting security is high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. It is responsible for robbery, fraud (419), trafficking, and other crimes that are threatening our national security

Health Issues

Health care is also important in the equation of national security Chen (2003) says there is a link between global health and human security. One quarter of deaths in the world is due to infectious diseases. The impact of HIV/AIDS on national security and development is also enormous. It creates political and social tension, stunts economic and human development, and reduces the effectiveness of the military. A nation that is dominated by the sick or hungry majority is already an incapacitated nation. Food security, heath security and even ideation security are therefore aspects of national security.

Religious Issues

Religious has been described by Karl Marx as the “Opium of the masses”. Doctrines that are at variance with the principles of nationhood are likely to be a source of insecurity to the nation. Religion is the powerful instrument for good and for iii. This power of religion was the principal reason for tussle between church and state in England in the 15th and 16th centuries. A lot of crisis experienced in this country have traces of religious undertone. Examples include, the Maitasine riots, the uproar that greeted Nigeria’s admission as the 46th member of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC). Religious issues of this nature tend to constitute security issues to a nation.

Dilapidated National Assets/Infrastructures:

The evidence of the dismal state of national security can also be in what Onyegbula (2000) described as the diminishing standard of living and the deterioration of social infrastructure and educational system. For instance, the roads, electricity, pipe born water, refineries, hospitals and schools have not been functioning at their optimum level. Egwu (2003) says that the security calculus of the Nigerian state failed because it did not include vital aspect of social and national development, such as provision of basic social amenities. Thus, the Nigerian state could not meet the social, economic, or even the military conditions for national security. These are a clear indication that the core social values and physical infrastructure necessary for establishing and sustaining national security, nation survival and socio-political wellbeing of the people are not there. Some example of the infrastructure that has remained in the chronic or permanent state of disrepair low performance and even stagnation thus consisting a several threat to the national security of the country include the county’s airports, sea ports, oil refineries, strategic inter-state highways, rails, bridges etc.

Nigeria has demonstrated that it lacks the fundamental requirements for national security namely a major stockpile of strategic defence, civil or general-purpose infrastructure. This situation exists due to lack of knowledge skills and vision concerning the requirements of true national security. This is compound by the fact that political manipulation and corruption have led to the misuse, embezzlement and misappropriation of the vital material and resources needed to improve the infrastructure for guaranteeing genuine security.

National development and national security are two sides of the same coin. According to Egwu (2000), over the year, the security of the Nigerian nation state was reduced to that of the ruler and his immediate supporters. The country’s leaders rules due to their ill-conceived notions of security. The security calculus of Nigeria State failed because it did not include vital aspect of social and national development, such as the provision of basic social amenities. Thus, the Nigerian State could not meet the social, economic, or even the military conditions for national security. These problems are clear indication that the government failed to consistently and committed to maintain the core social values and physical infrastructure necessary for establishing and sustaining national security, national survival and socio-political wellbeing of the nation. Nwakpa (2000) asserts the above fact when he says that the increasing national decay and insecurity is seen in the regressing economy, unable health services and facilities, lack of good water, transportation and fuel problems, unemployment and other problems that have overwhelmed the Nigeria society.

Other causes of insecurity of any nation are injustice and corruption. These elements may manifest outright in the actions or inaction of the government (i.e. the executive, the legislature and the judiciary) in their relationship with the governed and they have great capacity to generate devastating ripple effects (Igbogo, 2015).Injustice in the area of resource allocation and environmental degradation has led to violent eruption particularly in the Niger Delta region, the issue of Niger Delta Avengers is one of the example where critical oil infrastructures has been destroyed with adverse effects on nation economic activities and development, in-equality in the sharing of political positions has also causing disaffections among the geo-political zone of the country, Boko-Haram issues has also been link to injustice by the political class who exploit the situation to enrich themselves without considering the national development.

From the above, it has been established that corruption has resulted into uncompleted projects across the country which remained the hideout for criminal minded individuals to perpetrate their evil plot including act of insurgency and terrorism which led to increase in security of life and properties and threat to national development. It was also observed that abandoning of capital projects due to high level of corruption among government officials, individuals, and corporate organizations causes increase on the rate of youth unemployment in the country. Therefore, zero corruption would bring more industries, business with employment generation which reduced or eliminated insecurity and would guarantee national development.


This paper looked into the effect of corruption and insecurity on the national development. Methods used in this study include both empirical and secondary sources of data collection which allow for the use of information from government documents, scholars opinions, online journals, newspapers, articles and official reports.


The following solutions are proffer to address the issue of corruption and security challenges confronting the nation at the moment in order to achieve national development.

The issue of corruption must be fought with all the state arsenals including the political will to fight the scourge to finish by bringing to book all the corrupted office holders, political assassinations must be resolved, equal allocation of national resources among others. With this, the security problem the nation is currently facing will be resolved when people have a sense of belonging and the society will experience a relative peace.

Peace is synonymous with security. Opposite of peace is war. Injustices, corruption, poor planning, tyranny and selfishness often affect national development efforts of a nation. These elements breed disaffection, frustrations and in extremes cases, violent eruptions which precipitates crisis and insecurity all over the nation.No nation can afford to play with its own security.

Emphasis on security therefore must not be limited force or hardware. It encompasses issues of justice, food, good health care, and environment protection, tolerance and respect for human rights. It is a total package. National security is like personal survival, is the first law among nations. National security is the precursor for national development.


One concludes, according to the above, that corruption plays a major role in the under- development of the nation. Research shows that a society with skewed allocation of resources, injustice, bias sharing of political appointment, looting of national treasury through systematic legislations by public officials, use of public funds to private interest, income inequality among public servants etc has been proven to be responsible for un-realistic national development.

Research also shows that corruption is futile to any effective redistribution scheme a government is undertaking. It also goes without saying that corruption frustrates people and leave them disproving of their institutions. Both things mean that a society with corruption cannot possibly enjoy leaps and bounds of sustainable economic growth and development. Corruption is now recognized to be one of the world’s greatest challenges. It is a major hindrance to sustainable development, with a disproportionate impact on poor communities and is corrosive on the very fabric of society.

The impact of corruption in all sectors of Nigeria lead to the insecurity of live and properties which impedes national development, economic growth, distorts competition and requests serious legal and reputational risks. Corruption is also very costly for business, with the extra financial burden estimated to add 10 % or more to the costs of doing business in many parts of the world.


Based on the conclusion, the paper suggested that:

  1. Corruption in whatever forms it takes must be fought with all the state arsenals including the political will to fight the scourge to finish by bringing to book, all the corrupted office holders.
  2. Political crises must be resolved in order to guarantee security of life and properties.
  3. Equal allocation of national resources must prevail to enable states and local government complete abandoned projects. This will put a stop to criminal using of such places to create insecurity.




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Department of Social Studies

Nana Aishat Memorial College of Educaiton



            In this paper, discussion was focused on indiscipline and corruption in our society with reference to the Nigerian situation. Indiscipline and corruption have become a cankerworm that one does not know from what angle to begin the evacuation? There seem to be several trends of thought that call for examination. In this paper, some definitions and concepts of indiscipline and corruption were given and a review of some major findings and evidences that portray Nigeria as corrupt nation was done. Also, some major areas where indiscipline and corruption are evident were highlighted. Possible causes of indiscipline and corruption were suggested followed by recommendations and conclusion. This paper succinctly examined strategies to forestall indiscipline and corruption in our midst.


In Nigerian today, indiscipline and corruption among school children, government parastatal, market, and business have reached a crescendo. It is the talk of the town. Mass media, leaflets, pamphlets etc. reflect with the news of indiscipline and corruption. This menace has been the major concern of well-meaning good citizens in the country. Nwana (1971) noted that if indiscipline and corruption are allowed to continue, it could destroy our nation and the lives of the youths would be at stake. Thus, this study was carried out to identify various ways through which the menace of indiscipline and corruption can be forestalled.

Concept of Indiscipline

(1)        Indiscipline

            According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2015), indiscipline implies lack of control in the behaviour of a group of people. In the same vein, King Solomon, Ben David remarks that, “A man without self-control is like a city broken into, and left without walls. (Prov. 25:28). Furthermore, Azero (2018) opined that indiscipline is the opposite of disciplines which implies disobedience to rules and regulations, laid down rules, overstepping one’s boundary, morally loose.

Concept of Corruption

Corruption in Oxford Advanced Dictionary defines it, as, dishonest, or illegal behaviour, especially of people in authority.

Corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption also occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.

Political corruption is a persistent phenomenon in Nigeria. The rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major factors believed to have led to the sustained increase in the incidence of corrupt practices in the country.

Corruption is also the dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. It is the illegitimate use of power to benefit a private interest (Morris, 1991). Corruption is the giving of a bribe to an official so that the truth will not be told. It involves the embezzlement of public fund for personal use and any act which is considered to be criminal act according to the law of a particular society.

Corruption is Nigeria’s biggest challenge. The level of corruption in the country is high, it’s found in every sector of society. Be it small or big sector, there is every possibility of observing corrupt practices when critically examined.

Review on the Corrupt Nigerian State

Nigeria, which is the most populated country in Africa, has been ranked high on corruption index by Transparency International and other notable organizations that monitor corrupt practices around the world. High corruption rankings affects almost all Nigerians who migrate to foreign countries, as foreigners have the perception that since Nigeria is corrupt, so are all Nigerians.

In the year 2000, Transparency International carried out a survey on the corruption levels of 90 countries, including Kenya, Cameroon, Angola, Nigeria, Cote-d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia, India, Venezuela and others. At the end of the ranking, Nigeria was seen as the most corrupt in that ranking because the country occupied the 90th position in terms of transparency. In 2001, Nigeria was ranked the second-most corrupt nation in the world out of 91 countries, only better than Bangladesh.

Still from the same source, in the year 2002, Nigeria was again ranked the second-most corrupt country in the world, among 102 countries surveyed, occupying the 101st position. In 2003, Nigeria received the same ranking, making no improvements from 2003. In 2004, Nigeria was ranked the third-most country in the world, only better than Bangladesh and Haiti, out of 146 nations surveyed.

An analysis of the anti-graft/anti- corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue inspite of the laws because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences (Oyinola, 2011).

In 2012, Transparency International again deemed Nigeria one of the most corrupt nations in the world (Uzochukwu 2013). In that year, the country ranked 139 out of the 176 countries surveyed, making Nigeria the 37th most corrupt nation.

In 2013, Nigeria ranked 144 out of 177 countries surveyed in terms of transparency. This made Nigeria 33rd most corrupt country in the world that year. The result published by the organization also showed that Nigeria scored 25% in terms of transparency. In 2014, there was a little improvement when Nigeria ranked 136 out of 174 countries surveyed making Nigeria the 38th most corrupt country in the world in 2014.

With the emergency of a new government in the year 2015, many Nigerians were having great faith that corruption in the country will be minimized. In that year, the All Progressive Congress (APC) took over power from the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). One of the major campaign promises of the APC was the eradication of corruption in the country. Irrespective of the campaign promises, however, Nigeria still ranked low in transparency and high in corruption that year. Out of the 168 nations surveyed, Nigeria ranked 136, making her the 32nd most corrupt country in the world in 2015.

Up to the year 2017, there was no remarkable improvement in transparency in the country, despite the promise made by the current president Muhammadu Buhari to fight corruption. It appears that the former President Goodluck Jonathan did quite better when compared the ranking of 2014 (38th) to that of 2017 (40th). It is very disappointing that in the latest Corruption Perception Index released by Transparency International, Nigeria has relapsed deeper into corruption and has moved 12 steps backwards from 136 to 148 (Vanguard 2018), in respect to 2014 result.

Corruption in Nigeria wears many unattractive and dirty clothes. The situation is painful and worrisome as the money which would have been used to develop the country are being channeled into private pockets. A case worth of mentioning is the $2.1 billion arms deal, budgeted for the purchase of arms in the fight against Boko Haram insurgency group, which seems to have disappeared and cannot be accounted for.

The stain of corruption did not spare anti-graft agencies, as former chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, Ibrahim Lamorde, was accused of fraudulently diverting over N1trillion proceeds from corruption recovered by the agency (Adeyemi 2016). This is incredible as those who were appointed to fight corruption in the country are also found as the victim of the same problem they fight.

Corruption cases have not spared the governors and members of the National Assembly. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reported that Nyako, the former governor of Adamawa State and others were charged over offences bordering on money laundering (Pulse 2016). It was reported that the ex-governor opened 30 different accounts in Zenith Bank of Nigeria using different names whose aim is to siphon funds.

High level of corruption is equally being perpetrated by the members of the National Assembly. Jola (2016) described the National Assembly as a den of corruption. According to the author, members of National Assembly pay themselves for staff and offices they do not have or maintain. Once you are a member, you are co-opted and your mouth is stuffed with rot and corruption that you cannot opt out. Also, according to Lewis Obi, the National Assembly is nothing but a business enterprise and the primary objective of the members is to make money for themselves. He went further to explain that the National Assembly of the country is the highest paid legislature in the world. The chamber earns more than that of the United State of America and yet American economy is far much better than that of Nigeria. According to the documentation, United States Senators make an approximate annual income of $174,000.00 while that of Nigeria is $2,183, 685.00 (reported via Authoritative Economist Magazine).

Faces of Indiscipline and Corruption in Nigeria

Corruption takes many forms and can be interpreted by many people in many ways. It is hard to enter any sector in Nigeria without observing one corrupt practice or the other. The areas where corruption can be observed include civil service, politics, sports, security, religion, judiciary, government parastatals, private organizations etc.

In Politics

Political indiscipline and corruption is persistent in the Nigerian State. Many cases abound bothering on official misuse of resources for personal enrichment (Storey Report 2014). After the death of the former Head of State, Sani Abacha, investigation carried out detected the amount of money he embezzled in gas plant construction in the country. This led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars (Hector, 2004) which he stole. The Abacha administration in the 1990s notoriously looted upwards of $3 billion (Uzochukwu, 2013).

Apart from embezzlement, there are cases of rigging during elections. Contestants hire thugs who go around the polling stations to highjack ballot boxes and then freely vote for their candidates. Politicians also buy voters’ cards and use these cards to their own advantage. On many occasions politicians bribed top election officials to do wrong things to favour them or their candidates.

On many occasions many aggrieved opponents who feel cheated approached the court, but evidences have also revealed that barristers and judges also take bribe to perverse justice and the one who bribes wins the case (Adeyemi, 2016).

Books have been written, people have talked and the press have been written on the high level of indiscipline and corruption in Nigeria politics, yet the politician perpetrators pretend as if they are not the people being talked about. They feel they are above the law. It is because of this horrible situation that makes both the young and the old struggle to find themselves in one political party or the other, believing that once they occupy any position in politics, even the smallest, they will corruptly enrich themselves with public funds.

Indiscipline and Corruption in Higher Institutions

It is no longer news to hear that indiscipline and corruption parade itself in universities, polytechnics and colleges. Some lecturers use the opportunity they have to take advantage of others such as sexual harassment of female students, embezzlement and plagiarism.

Universities have been crying about misappropriating of funds allocated to them. A lecturer in a University located in Anambra state in the department of metallurgical and Materials Engineering has this to say; “what makes our founding to be of low standard is indiscipline and corruption. An organization gave the department some money that would have been more than enough to upgrade and standardized the foundry, but I do not know what the management of the department did with the money”. Corruption and indiscipline are one of the biggest challenges faced by the education system. How do some students find their ways into the universities? Some are there not by merit, but through bribery called sorting. Some rich men bribe vice-chancellors and heads of departments to secure admission for their wards, preventing those who would have made it on merit.

Indiscipline and Corruption in the Police Force

There is also corruption and indiscipline in the police force viz; bribery, intimidation, sexual harassment of young inmates, turning truths upside down etc. Due to the encounter and ugly experiences many Nigerians have had with policemen, even the good ones among them are generalized as being bad.

The policemen who man the checkpoints on the nation’s roads cannot do but collect money from car owners and public transport drivers. Their main interest is to collect bribe rather than securing the roads. Bribes become compulsory even when your vehicle particulars are in order.

Some women prison inmates are sexually harassed and assaulted. These helpless women cannot resist because police are armed. This is sad and unfortunate as people who are to protect, suddenly transform to unavoidable danger.

Indiscipline and Corruption in Sports: The Nigerian Football

In the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF), there is indiscipline and corruption. Players are not chosen by merit, it is all about who you know in top political office or society. It is the reason why there is power tussle in the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF). Everybody wants to be at the head so that he will illegally enrich himself with the national cake. The fighting for position is not because they want to genuinely serve the people but to enrich themselves illegally.

There was a BBC news report which said that “A senior football official and a club administrator have been banned for 10 years following their involvement in corruption, the football authority has announced (BBC Sports New 2013). Match-fixing and indiscipline is a problem in Nigerian football and has led to sanctions against a number of clubs, referees and officials (Oluwashina, 2013).

Indiscipline and Corruption in the Church

When there is indiscipline and corruption in the house of God, what hope do Nigerians then have? There is embezzlement of church funds, favourism in electing church officials into various positions and many others. Some pastors use magical and devilish powers in running their church business in the name of God’s power. Some women have been given babies through devilish powers and today, such children, operating under the influence of the devil, are the causes of many troubles and heaches afflicting the nation.

Many pastors have, on many occasions been caught in adultery and fornication. Through the press and social media immoral acts committed by many Nigerian Pastors have come to limelight. In early November of 2014, Blaze FM Radio, Orifite, said of a pastor who impregnated an 11-year-old girl whose mother took her to the pastor’s place for prayers. The level of indiscipline and corruption in Nigeria has made many citizens of this country show no respect to spiritual issues as well as many people who claim to be ministers of God.

Causes of Indiscipline and Corruption

Causes of Indiscipline and corruption could be viewed as follows:

  1. Lack of recognition of cultural heritages:

Causes for the fallen walls of moral fabric. Nduka (1961) gave the following reasons with special reference to Nigeria. In his settled candid research and observation, contact with the West has brought both negatives and positive effects on the indigenous systems of values.

  1. From the African Angle, their grievous mistake lies on the fact of relegating their culture to a new one without understanding the composition of such a culture which is eclectical – a combination of Jewish, Greek and Roman culture. In actual fact, the western education has brought about good medical-care, scientific and technological advancement. Very many African historians such as Ayandele (1966 and Ajayi (1976) were of the same opinion with Nduka, that the contact with the colonial powers has indeed resulted to African’s, moral degradation – indeed, Nigeria’s moral disintegration which has weakened the long cherished traditional beliefs and custom.
  2. The destruction of African setting from a communal life to individualistic setting which is typical of the West. In Pan in African setting, a couple give birth to children, they and the community are responsible for nurturing them into moral uprightness, but not now.

iii.        The introduction of capitalism. This is the legacy of the West. It is good to be capitally buoyant but very wrong to use it to set up totally false values.

  1. The double standard of equality. Take for instance in the early fifties, under the auspices of the Nanfield foundation the colonial office made the following remark, that is, there must not be moral-gap from schools moral teaching and preaching. In addition, the treatment of inferiority as meted to educated Africans and employees created a certain amount of colonised bar (Mayasan, 1971).
  2. The foreign yardstick to check morals i.e. Nigerians were known to check moral laxities through mediconagical concoction. It was very efficacious to detect the accused, either theft, immorality, or possession of bad strength, etc. All these are gone by the new incursions that are foreign to indigenous values (Bright, 1971).

vi         Oath – The Holy Bible and the Holy Quran are used to take oath, which people fault and punishment is slow, but with the traditional setting, cutlass, iron, dame gun, water, sand into the calabash bowl were used. It only takes first to the seventh day to catch the culprits. But now, lawyers are employed whereby criminals escape to continue perpetration of lawlessness, shedding of innocent blood, in the name of aspiring for political posts or acquired devilish demonic wealth (Mayasan, 1975).

  • The approach to life. The indigenous, Nigerian setting, is very rigid and not as critical as that of the West. For now, the West has produced more cases, of permissiveness than the indigenous milieu.

A number of things cause corruption, and among them are:

  • Greed
  • Poor youth empowerment
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment

Poor Youth Empowerment

Poor youth empowerment is a contributor to indiscipline and corruption. Internet fraud, sexual harassment and other bad acts occur because Nigeria has not adequately empowered the youths. When parents and governments empower youths appropriately, the level of indiscipline and corruption among them will diminish.


According to international standards of poverty, a person is said to be poor when he lives under $1.25 (N210) per day. There are many people in Nigeria who get themselves involved in corruption due to poverty. According to the World Bank record, in 2004, 63.1% of Nigerians were poor.

The poverty level increased in 2010 to 68%. This is why some poor youths are being used as thugs by politicians, taking advantage of their level of poverty.


            Unemployment is one of the major challenges in Nigeria and has broken the hearts of many citizens. People are pushed into bad practices because of unemployment, and they want to make money and live better.

Effects of Indiscipline and Corruption

The negative consequences of corruption are many, viz;

  • Poor Investment
  • Rise in Poverty Level
  • Poor National Development
  • National Crises

Poor Investment

Unemployment in Nigeria would have been greatly reduced if only investors are attracted to Nigeria. Companies and organizations that would have invested are afraid, believing that corrupt practices may ruin their industries.

Rise in Poverty Level

When individuals in high positions of authority engage in money laundering that is supposed to be used to create employment for the masses and reduce poverty, the result is very high unemployment level and a correspondence rise in poverty level.

Poor National Development

Any country with high rate of indiscipline and corruption is likely to experience developmental bankruptcy. A situation where some Chief Executive Officers indulge in corrupt practices to make money means that economic development will suffer. When Nigerians keep on shifting the country’s currency to foreign countries, there will be less economic development in Nigeria.

National Crises

So many crises in Nigeria today are as a result of indiscipline and corruption. The insecurity problems all over the country is a consequence of indiscipline and corruption. Corrupt politicians are fighting the government using various militant groups as agents. These various attacks from different parts of the country against the government have caused disorderliness and has seriously affected the Nigeria economy.

Eradicating Indiscipline and Corruption

Corrupt Nigerians do not truly understand the harm they are causing to other citizens. Corruption can be reduced by these possible remedies;

  • Self-satisfaction
  • Institution of strong anti- corruption groups
  • Employment generation
  • Proper government funding of schools
  • Treating all citizens equally


Self-satisfaction in this context implies being content with what one has. When Nigerian leaders are satisfied with what they legitimately earn, the issue of embezzlement and money laundering will cease.

Institution of Strong Anti-Corruption Group

Creating strong anti-corruption institutions is another weapon to win the fight against indiscipline and corruption. This group is to work independently with the government to ensure transparency. Culprits should be made to face the required punishment as prescribed by the anti-corruption agency, no matter highly placed.

Employment Generation

The unemployed find themselves involved in unwholesome practices mainly because they need to make money to meet their daily needs. Government and capable hands should endeavour to generate more jobs for citizens to get paid employment. A busy mind may find it difficult to indulge in these practices because he is being monitored and paid adequately.

Proper Government Funding of Schools

Understanding the importance of skill acquisition will go a long way to propel government to develop all the schools in Nigeria. When proper attention is paid to the tertiary institutions in the country, they will produce graduates who are employable. Provision of appropriate equipments in the universities will enable Nigerian graduates acquire necessary skills and use them to generate income, even if not employed after graduation. Self-employment will make graduates to be more determined in the work they do and will prevent them from embarking on evil practices like internet scams, kidnapping and the rest.

Treating all Citizens Equally

Treating all offenders equally according to the law will help reduce corruption. Nobody is above the law, therefore anyone who acts contrary to it should be given the stipulated punishment. If any minister or governor or senator or president is given the punishment deserved, issue of indiscipline and corrupt practices will be minimized.


Let us borrow a leaf from Bill Bright (1971) that remarked as follows, that:

In all human relationship a revolutionary change is necessary. Therefore, if the solution to the problems afflicting the society must be permanent and effective, it must start at the root source of infection. As to Nigeria situation the roots to be tacked urgently are indiscipline and corruption.

However, there is still a ray of hope for the country if the suggestions are faithfully adhered to.


In the light of the finding, the following recommendations are put forward.

  1. There should be constant examination and evaluation of the strategies and importation of educational organization, for the transmission and implementation of democratic values, the doctrines, policies and practices subjected to the test of democratic ideals.
  2. Every person aspiring for any political posts must swear oaths with traditional elements to curb indiscipline and corruption – a fast punishment.
  3. Appointment, requirements and admission must be based on good moral standing and sound academic excellence.
  4. The home must be revisited on nursing, caring and upbringing.
  5. The Federal government must not allow workers to suffer before they are given their salaries, gratitude and pension allowance.
  6. Wages must be increased from time to time, to meet the pressing needs and soaring inflation.
  7. Lectures and tutorials must be sponsored, to be delivered in the streets and market places on honesty and transparency.
  8. Efforts must be made to close the gap between the school and home for students being trained, they are future leaders.
  9. There should be no cross-carpeting from one party to another because of selfish gain.
  10. No citizen should be above the law any offender must be brought to book.
  11. According to Majasin, mild corporal punishment must be introduced to curb indiscipline in school. The door is open for more research on this to better the state of the nation.
  12. The Federal government promises on free education from primary to tertiary institution and free – health scheme must be sincere.


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Ayandele, E.A. (1966). The Missionary Impact on Modern Nigeria, 1842 – 1914, London, Longmans.

Bill Bright (1971). Revolution Now. Arrowhead Springs, San Bernadino California.

Cox (1971). In Oladapo 1994 – Religion and Morals. Department of Religion, Unilorin.

Hector, I. (2004). SKJ SAGA: SWISS GOVT FREEZES & 100M ACCOUNTS. A Publication of Vanguard, Nigeria.

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Ilori, J. (1982-83). The Source Magazine. Religious Publishing Lagos.

Mayasan, J.A. (1975). Indigenous Education and Progress in Developing Countries. Ibadan University Press.

Morris, S.D. (1991). Corruption and Politics in Contemporary Mexico. University of Alabama Press. Tuscaloosa.

National Policy on Education, (1994). Moral Impact of Religious Education on Students Behaviour as Perceived by Teacher and Students in Secondary School. Curriculum Department, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

Nwana, D.C. (1971). Major Schools Offences in Nigeria. Preliminary Study. West African Journal of Education. Vol. XV, No.2 pp. 99-193.

Omoniyi Idowu (1991). In Oladap­o, M.A. (1994). A Paper delivered on School Pupils Indiscipline in Schools.

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Oyinlola, O.A. (2011). Corruption Eradication in Nigeria: An Appraisal. Library Philosophy and Practice.

Professor Garba D. Azare (2018). Welcome Address to NTI Matriculating Students, 2018, SAQ Ilorin.

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Uzochukwu, M.O. (2013). Challenges in Nigeria and Solutions on how to resolve them.






























Abdur-Rafiu JAMIU

NCE,   B.A (Ed), M.Ed, Ph.D

07068231116, 08053624866,  

[email protected]


Sakariyau JOGUNOMI

NCE, BA (Ed), M.Ed


Saheed Oyeyemi USMAN

NCE, BA (Ed), M.Ed

Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin



The principal expected outcome of education is production of individuals who would be useful to the society in which they found themselves and be self- reliant and self -disciplined.  Thus it becomes incumbent on the school to ensure a very high level of discipline among every member of the school community. Unfortunately, the level of indiscipline in Nigerian school today is so high that one begins to wonder what is responsible for this. Different acts of indiscipline are exhibited by school managers, lecturers and students alike. This paper reveals the importance of discipline in tertiary institutions with special reference to colleges of education and suggests that there is need for proper adoption of self-discipline most especially by the stakeholders involved in teacher education so that the expected quality can be assured and attained.



Education is a process of handling down the ideas, values and norms of the society across the generations. It involves the transmission of worthwhile knowledge moral, skills attitudes and beliefs (Oladosu, 2004). ‘Moral’ means behaviour and ‘morality’ is the way people behave such behaviour must be in accordance with the certain standard set by the society as regard what is good  and acceptable as compared with what is bad and unacceptable (Ogunlola, 2006).  In any educational setting, discipline and its maintenance occupy a significant position because a school or an academic institution is a social environment where many people interact and discipline connotes a code of life in accordance with rules and regulations where two or more persons work or live together.

For a nation to rise to a standard worthy enough for her to compete favourably in the league of nations, such a nation must ensure that high quality in her education is attained and sustained, thus bringing about quality workforce in the nation. However, quality work force in the education sector brings quality education which is an instrument highly indispensable instrument in the transformation of individual values, beliefs and behaviour; it is also used to preserve societal cultural settings and acquisition of skills that make members of the society useful to themselves and society at large.

Colleges of education as teacher producing institutions are academic settings where discipline is supposed to prevail among all stakeholders involved.  Writers like Adeniyi (2006), Taiwo (2006) and Taiwo and Opadokun (2009) have observed the absence of discipline in our campuses. This situation therefore informed this write up.

Concept of Discipline

The word ‘discipline is derived from the Latin word ‘disciplinal’, which refers to teaching and learning.  It is closely associated with the term “disciple” which means to follow or study under an accepted leader (Okorie, 2000).  Literally, the word ‘discipline’ implies a method of training one’s mind or body or of controlling one’s behaviour.  It also connotes one’s ability dictionary of Current English, 2000 6th edition).  Technically, discipline may be defined as a code of life in accordance with rules and regulations where two or more persons are working together.  In the school setting, discipline is described by Okorie (2000), as “an ordered behaviour that leads to better learning’.  She added that Discipline does not imply punishment but rather it connotes order and control.  This indicates that discipline means maintenance of conditions to the efficient achievement of the school set goals.  Indiscipline as the opposite of discipline means non-conformity with the societal values and norms.  The ability to respect constituted authority, to obey established laws and regulations and to maintain acceptable social habits and norms of behaviour is referred to as discipline (Taiwo&Opadokun, 2009).

Discipline is a fundamental issue in all our lives and our relationships.  It is about safeguarding our rights both as individuals and as a society.  To Adeniyi (2006), discipline could be defined at global level as the characteristic degree and type of orderliness in a given society, community or school, or the means by which that is obtained.

The variables that may cause disciplinary problems in schools and colleges could be categorized into students caused problems, staff/management cause problems and societal caused problems. In teaching learning situation, the position of students is enormous; however, students are usually quick to exploit an unfortunate situation. Some of them dislike school and most teachers associated with it.  Others just like all human beings react in terms of health, emotions and passing interests.  A number of students-caused disciplinary problem include; carefree attitude to learning, poor home training, in seriousness on the students part (Okorie, 2000).

Meanwhile, the management caused problem include lack of devotions, inconsistency, moral laxity on the part of lecturers/teachers, poorly planned school activities/schedules, inadequate facilities, poor ventilation and lighting, admission of students with poor academic standard etc. the parents who are significant agent of education also contribute to disciplinary problems because of corruption, pampering, materialism and poverty.  For instance, some corrupt parents do attempt to buy life question papers for their wards and by doing so they are teaching their children to indiscipline.   The following are some forms of indiscipline that are rampant in our schools at all levels: Breaking of bounds, bullying, fighting, lateness to school, absenteeism, truancy, rioting, cultism, smoking, drinking, disobedience, stealing, extortion, drug addiction, sex offences, examination malpractices and willful destruction of school properties (Adeniyi 2006).

Quality Assurance

In the school system, some determinants of high quality education include goals of education, quality of the input as well as a well-organized school system that ensures the articulation and effective co-ordination of all aspects of school life (Ochuba 2009).

Ochuba (2009) also states that if the education industry would want to carry out its function of development of quality human capital, there would be need for checks and balances through regular and effective supervision and inspection. This, in essence, is to ensure and maintain quality of output by the teacher. This situation is what warranted the adoption of Quality Assurance System in schools to bring about quality in the teaching work force, despite all odds.

In Nigeria today, there is an increasing public fear and complaint that the quality of education is falling. However, this needs to be proved beyond public speculations through empirical studies. The falling standard of education over the years may not be unconnected with the effects of increasing enrolment on the students’ academic performance which is the parameter to measure principals’ administrative effectiveness (Wahab, 2011).

Quality Assurance (QA) on the other hand is a two way system, that is, it involves the whole school on the one hand and Quality Assurer (i.e. inspector) on the other: they both work together to achieve a continuous improvement in standard and not minimum standard as intended by inspection system. In QA, all stakeholders are involved and carried along, that is, students, teaching staff, non- teaching staff, parents, government and the community; here the community includes the opinion leaders, traditional and religious leaders as well as the corporate bodies. QA looks at education improvement from the holistic approach, though, the students are the target, and everything in the learning environment is involved in the process of achieving higher standard.
In present day national perspectives, quality is at the top of most agenda. Ways to improve the quality of education is very much the important task facing any educational institution. Quality educating has its significant impact and invaluable contributions to manpower development. Students therefore have the right to education of good quality, hence, the training of inspectors in quality assurance system to be able to work with schools to achieve the expected standard.

The use of Quality Assurance management system has become popular in the administrative world. The days of quality control practice in industries are over, quality assurance has taken over. The worth of any management is based on its ability to produce quality product and satisfy client’s needs (ljaiya, 1991). In the education industry, the worth of any educational system is based on its ability to produce quality output (students) that can contribute to the development of the society. It is then the functions of the education managers to identify and solve problems that may work against quality delivery of education. This problem solving approach will be directed at taking preventive measures against wastage.

Acts of Indiscipline in Schools

Owing to the important roles played by the school in preparing an individual for life through the cultivation of worthwhile knowledge and development of the right type of attitude and character, it is imperative that the school system should be sanctified. This is because any blemish or mess in education system could adversely affect the development of individuals and the nation progress at large. In other words, the connotation of the above submission is that educational institutions are supposedly citadels of learning. In an ideal situation, schools need to be purged of unethical practices in order to attain the aims for which educational institutions are established.

It is however disheartening that some studies have found that the situation in the contemporary educational institutions is excruciating as corruption and indiscipline have crept into the system.  Leonard submitted that instead of education being an agent of purifying the minds of children to become useful members of the society, it is rather diverting the mind of children away from what education is intended for educational system is now playing negative roles because of indiscipline. Instead of training our children to be good citizens of the country, the training is rather towards inculcating bad behaviours.

Today, there is an outcry of lack of discipline in our schools most especially the secondary schools. We should be cognizant of the fact that our society is replete with a lot of indiscipline acts. The incident of indiscipline has eaten deep into the social, political, economic and educational life of our nation. This include students unrest, examination leakages, cultism, drug abuse, sex offence, disobedience, truancy, assault and insult, mass destruction and other problems rampaging the society and our institutions of learning.

The acts of indiscipline perpetuated in our schools are what Abdur-Rafiu (2016) reported as the corrupt practices prevalent in Nigerian schools. According to  Abdur-Rafiu (2016), these acts of indiscipline include examination malpractice, sex exchange for marks, money for marks, cultism, stealing, raping of female students, blocking, bribery, not ready to study yet want to pass, indecent dressing, forging of receipts, impersonation, embezzlement of funds by student leaders, truancy, prostitution (Aristo), false declaration of entry qualification and extortion of parents.

Relevance of Discipline

The concern of all education stakeholders should be quality. i.e quality of staff, equipment and output (students). When the quality of education is lowered, everybody in the society feels concerned. Thus, the emphasis is laid on increasing the quality of education from time to time. One of the ways to achieve this is to maintain discipline. No society can be organized without orderliness.  For orderliness to take place there must be certain rules and regulations, which must guide the conducts and activities of such society.  This cannot be done without an important ingredient called discipline.  Discipline is an essential ingredient for organizing, directing and managing a society of which the school is an integral part.

In school, there is a policy statement that guides the expected code of conduct of all the activities that takes place there. For everything to move on smoothly for the achievement of the expected goals and objectives of the school, everybody working there, whether, teachers, non -teachers and students should understand these policy statements and be able to abide by them. More so, the lecturers need to be morally upright. Morality is the upholding and displaying of certain beliefs, ideal, rules and regulation or behaviours which are generally considered good or accepted by the society and to which every member of that society is bound.  Morality therefore, is the ability of the individual to differentiate between what is good and what is bad between what is right and what is wrong.

Morality and discipline’ are somehow interwoven.  This is evident in the submissions of some writers.  For instance, Adeniyi (2006) viewed discipline as “an orderly conduct of individual, having self- control, readiness to observed rules and regulations and having mental faculty.  While Akande & Jawondo (2008) defined morality as “doing what is considered good by a society to which one belongs and abstaining from anything regarded bad by the  society to which one belongs. It could be inferred that while teaching morality through moral education, discipline should be also imparted.  Moral discipline is permeated in the contents of moral education and with the absence of morality discipline would be meaningless.


To rectify or curb the problem of indiscipline in our schools, our educational system must be designed in a way that it will instill in our youths the need to be conscious of discipline in their life endeavors, to shun all acts of evil vices, to have respect for elders, to conform to the rules and regulations of the schools and society.  The teachers or lecturers should also join the management in wagging war against indiscipline in schools.  Also, it must be collective efforts of the school management, staffers and students.  If each could play its role very well, the effects and manifestations of indiscipline will be reduced and sanity returned back to our institutions of learning.  If indiscipline could be captured in colleges of education it has to be conquered in the society because colleges of education train the nation teachers.




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Adeniyi, A. A (2006): The Role of home in maintaining Discipline in schools. Ilorin Journal of teacher Education.  3(1) 246-253

Akande, F. F. & Jawondo, A. S (2008) (Eds) Moral Educaiton for Nigerian schools. Ilorin: Integrity publications.

Jawondo, A. S. (2006): Religious moral education: A panacea for National Development.  Institute Journal of Studies in Education (2) 3 126-132.

Okorie A. N. (2000): Maintaining discipline in the classroom.  In Idowu A. I, & S. O Daramola etal (Eds) A guide to teaching practice. Ilorin, Faculty of Education University of Ilorin 173-185

Ogunlola, L (2006). Moral Education: A Panacea for National Development. Institute Journal of Studies in Education (2) 3 126-132.

Oladosu, A. G. A. S (2004).Concepts in Education Related to Teaching I. In Abimbola, 1. O & Abolade, A. O. (Eds). Fundamental Principles and Practice of Instruction. Ilorin: Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Oyesola, G. O. (2000). Discipline in schools in Durosaro, F &Ogunsaju S. (2000 eds): The Craft of Educational Management.  Ilorin Haytee press and publishing

Sanusi, O. A. (2006). The place of parents in child’s Discipline in a Christian home. Ilorin Journal of Teacher Education. 3 (1) 135-142.

Taiwo M. B. & Opadun, O. A. (2009). (Eds). Introduction to educational planning: Administration and supervision. Ilorin Integrity publications

Taiwo.M. B. (2006) Students’ perception on causes and effects of examination malpractice in Kwara State Colleges of Education. Institute Jouranl of Studies in Education. 2, (3) 176-182.

Wahab, T. (2011), Conflict Management Strategies among Principals and Teachers in Selected Secondary Schools in Orelope Local Government Area of Oyo State. Unpublished B. Ed Project, University of Ilorin













 Afeez Abiola HAMZAT

Email: [email protected]

Phone No: +234-806-890-1902

Department of Computer Science,

Nana Aisha Memorial College of Education, Alagbado, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.




Over the decades, education has dwelt into use of information and communication technology for teaching and learning purposes. However, mobile technologies such as iPhones, Android Phones, Blackberry Phones and Smart Phones generally, being among the emerging technologies are currently involved in educational processes. Mobile technologies are technological devices used for communicating and sharing information over the Internet. Its introduction into education has improved teaching-learning process. However, not all students in Nigeria universities use these technological devices for educational purpose. This present study therefore investigated the students’ self-efficacy and usabilities of mobile technologies for learning in some selected universities in Nigeria. The study examined the most commonly used mobile technology by students in Nigerian Universities, the students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes, the students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on gender and as well investigated the students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on age difference.

The study revealed that the most used mobile technological device by the students in Nigerian Universities is Android phone with 51.6%, the students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes is high, there was no significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on gender and there was no significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on age difference. The study therefore recommended that students should explore their mobile technologies in order to develop self-efficacies in using them academically, university authorities should provide timely workshop on use of mobile technologies, lecturers should motivate students more on using mobile technologies, among others.

Key Words: ICTs, Mobile Technologies, Mobile learning, Self-efficacy, Gender and Age difference influences on use of mobile technologies.


Incorporating ICTs into educational process and its pedagogies has been a policy established for years back and is yet to receive total effectiveness and perfection. Although, being in this digital era, it is as well observed that technology on its own may not completely resolved the problems in education (Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu, 2005).  Technology, being an application of scientific knowledge or systematic process of solving our daily problems with ease and conformity with use of tools, machines and techniques. The swift development in technology has led to remarkable changes in the way we live, and the social and educational strains of the society (Daramola, 2011). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are the form of technologies that are used to record, store, process, retrieve and transmit information across the globe (National Open University Nigeria, 2009). These include mobile phones, computers, smartphones, PDAs, tablets among others. While Yusuf (2007) revealed that ICTs are electronic technologies used for accessing, processing, gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information.

Furthermore, ICTs are computer based tools used by human to work with the information and communication processing needs of an organization which entails the computer hardware and software, the network and other devices  (video, audio, photography camera, among others) that convert information (text, images, sound, motion, and so on) into common digital form (Onasanya, 2009). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) should be used as pedagogical powerful tools for the construction and modeling of knowledge (Yusuf & Onasanya, 2004). This implies that ICT tools should be utilized in teaching and learning processes in such a way that it would enhance learners to be able to construct their own knowledge even without much intervention of the teacher. This assertion paved way for students to be ICT inclined in their educational processes via their mobile technologies usage.

The use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones became famous in Nigeria starting from 2002 and since then, the growth rate has become so fast. This development was also detailed in other African countries (Hendrikz, 2006). Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) like smart phones, iPhones, android phones and other related mobile devices are presently pervasive amidst students in universities for educational purposes (Herrington, Herrington, Mantei, Olney, & Ferry, 2008). This emphasized that ICTs proffer several prospects in education which can be used to groom the present cohort of students for future challenges in any establishment (Onasanya, 2009). Also, Mobile phones are now common among people, and by chance the most widely handheld device in Nigeria. Although there are still some challenges like complex graphics or complex web designs, for highly interactive future models that will be more powerful and several current challenges will be solved (Onasanya, Ayelaagbe & Laleye, 2012; Trinder, 2005).

Onasanya, Ayelaagbe and Laleye (2012) emphasized the possibilities of introducing mobile phone as a learning tool and stated that the learning curve of the mobile phone is very short and therefore it is easier to start using mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) rather than laptop computers. This denote that mobile phones and other mobile technologies like PDAs or smartphones are viable of being use in learning processes by the students for transmitting and receiving instructions which really enhance their pace of learning.

Concept of Mobile Technologies in Education

Mobile technologies are the communicating devices that have the capability of being easily moved around as the name implies, and that are internet facilitated. Mobile technology in particular has been one of the most functioning spurs of change, redefining the educational methodology and even the underlying concept of literacy (Adams, 2012).  The integration of technology into education has been gaining attraction ever since the internet was invented. The nature of the internet lends itself to empowering both students and teachers with the use of mobile technologies for educational processes (Adams, 2012). It is the emergence of mobile technologies, including mobile phones, android phones, smartphones and highly evolved tablet PC’s with internet capabilities, that is clearly dignified to permanently change the world’s educational approach. The absolute usefulness of mobile technologies and its embedment into every day’s life activities have made it impossible to ignore the possibilities which mobile technologies offer (Adams, 2012).

Batagan (2011) emphasized the importance of mobile technologies in education, where the educational system is referred to as a core area for future smart cities. One of the germaneness of the mobile technologies is its image capturing capability which allows teachers and students to bring the outside world into the classroom (Ekamayake & Wishart, 2011). However, despite the advantages of mobile technologies, some of its disadvantages are: high costs of the technologies and services as well as small display size that might not be usable by everyone most especially those with eye defects (Pocatilu, Visoiu, Dodvea & Van-Osch, 2012).

Also, Olasedidun (2014) realized that learning with technologies signifies using the technologies as cognitive tools to create constructivist learning environments. Therefore mobile technologies are cellular communication enabled mobile devices that is capable of computing, storing, transmitting, receiving information or instructions which could be mobile phones, smartphones, ipads, iPod, tablets among others.

Mobile technologies embrace Mobile learning and vice versa, this is because the only means to achieve or undergo a mobile learning is via the use of mobile technologies. Ajidagba, Yusuf and Olumorin (2010) identified mobile learning (m-learning) as any educational service that supplies learners with general electronic information and educational content that aids their acquisition of knowledge, regardless of location or time. This connotes that, learning has gone beyond receiving lessons or lectures within a four-wall of classroom, it can be done via mobile technologies at individual’s leisure time, either synchronously or asynchronously. Also, m-learning has been described as learning with mobile technological devices, learning across multiple contexts through social and content interactions using mobile technological devices (Crompton, 2013; Toteja & Kumar, 2013). Using portable computing devices such as laptop and other mobile technologies enable mobile learning which allows students’ learning to extend beyond the traditional classroom. Mobile learning gives learners increased flexibility and new opportunities for interaction that leads to increased engagement in their learning (Reiners, Renner, & Schreiber, 2005).

Also, Al-Emran, Elsherif and Shaalan (2016), stated that m-learning makes it possible for students to communicate, interact, and behave among each other with the aid of mobile devices such as  smart phones, MP3 and MP4 devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablet computers and other portable devices. All these showed that m-learning is flexible, without time and location restrictions. Pocatilu, Visoiu, Dodvea and Van-Osch (2012) researched on mobile learning and mobile technologies in academia and the result of the study showed that many students are not aware of the possibility of integrating mobile technologies into educational process despite the fact that their mobile devices have the performance capabilities to support mobile learning. However, the findings of such research seem to have changed due to current trend in technologies usage in Nigeria.

Self-efficacy on Use of Mobile Technologies.

Self-efficacy on use of any technology is paramount in detecting how well and good such technology is used. Computer self-efficacy is the judgment of the capability to apply simple computer component skills to broader tasks such as preparing written reports or analyzing financial data. Attitude, on the other hand, refers to the habit of mind and feeling that affects how individual think and behave (Shih, Chu, Hwang, & Kinshuk, 2010). Self-efficacy in using mobile technologies has been revealed to be particularly influential on knowledge acquisition (Barbeite & Weiss, 2004). Utulu and Alonge (2012) researched on use of mobile phones for Project Based Learning (PBL) by undergraduates of Nigerian private universities and the study revealed that three mobile phone services (Voice Calls, SMS and Internet Services) were significantly used by students anytime they were involved in PBL and they do get information from the Internet using their mobile phones when they were involved in PBL. This implies students are capable to handle mobile technologies and that is the research shows that they can use it anytime any day.

However, the use of such mobile technologies seems to distract students’ attention at times when they ought to concentrate on their learning. Amali, Bello and Hassan (2012) researched on university of Ilorin students’ use of mobile phone in lecture rooms and its implications in education for Nigeria development. Findings of the study showed that mobile phones disorientate lecture room behavior and students attitude towards learning and as well those that are not using mobile technologies were prone by the distraction of those who use them. Yang (2012) researched on exploring college students’ attitudes and self-efficacy of mobile learning and found out that students are competent in using the mobile technologies for reading the assigned texts, posting questions, reading and providing feedback to peers. This outcome showed that students’ self-efficacy on the use of mobile technologies for learning is on the high side.

Also, Mnaathr, Basha, Ahmaid and Jamaludin (2013) pointed out that a lot of students that use mobile technologies to solve their existing tasks really strengthen their self-efficacy ability. This implies using any of the mobile technologies in learning process with confidence, would have influence on the learning characteristics of the learner. Results also revealed that students’ mobile self-efficacy based on prior m-learning experiences was high in comparison with students with no prior experience (Yorganci, 2017).

Influence of Gender and Age on Use of Mobile Technologies

Intervening variables such as gender, age among others seem to have influenced the use of mobile technologies as it was revealed by many research findings. Hargittai (2008) stated that the original gender gap in mobile technologies and Internet use generally, appears to have narrowed to the point of non-existence. This connotes that both male and female students are capable of using internet on mobile technologies or via other enabled devices. Yang (2012) also discovered that self-efficacy of using mobile technologies for college students in a language class based on gender was not a main factor which affected the self-efficacy on the usage of such technologies. This implies that gender seems not to be an influential factor on technologies usage any longer. Also, Yorganci (2017) revealed that there were no significant differences in students’ mobile self-efficacy based on gender. This denotes that both male and female are currently technology savvy when it comes to mobile technologies usage.

However, Ferreira, Moreira, Pereira and Durao (2015) observed that there were significant differences in the use of mobile phone and Tablet by students according to their gender i.e. the female students use mobile technologies than the male students. It was observed that students’ attitudes based on gender were significantly different, male students had higher means when compared to female students (Yorganci, 2017). These seem that male and female students’ use of mobile technologies may not be significantly differentiated any longer.

Age as an intervening variable also has influence on research findings.  Students of 24-26years old were more leaning towards the use of mobile technologies in teaching and learning process than students of 18-23years old. Students of 21-26years old agreed that “Students’ should have their teachers’ contact number on their mobile phones and to share notes or lectures on Mobile phones or other mobile technologies” while 18-20years old students disagreed with aforementioned condition (Mubashrah, Keith, & Jamil, 2013, p. 67).



A descriptive research design was used to investigate the students’ self-efficacy on the use of mobile technologies for learning based on the following research questions;

  1. What is the most commonly used mobile technology by students in Nigerian universities?
  2. What is the students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purpose?
  • What is the students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on gender?
  1. What is the students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on age difference?

Research Hypotheses

Based on research questions iii) and iv), the following corresponding hypotheses were tested in this study.

Ho1:      There is no significant difference between male and female students’ self-efficacy in the use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

Ho2:      There is no significant difference among different ages of students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

The total numbers of the respondents were 287 which is the total number of samples that were used in this study. Students from University of Ilorin, Kwara State University, Malete, and Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Kwara State were used as samples for this study. The data collection for this study was done using survey research model. The analysis and interpretation of data obtained through the copies of the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The frequencies count, mean and percentage were used to answer the research questions 1 and 2. Hypothesis 1 was tested using independent t-test while hypothesis 2 was tested using chi-square at significance level equals 0.05.

Research Instrument

The instrument for this study was a researcher-designed questionnaire tagged “Students’ Self-Efficacy and Usabilities of Mobile Technologies for Learning”. Items were formed based on their relevance in finding out the students’ self-efficacy and usabilities of mobile technologies for learning. The study was a descriptive one of survey method and that was the reason for using questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of six sections; Sections A, B, C, D, E and F.  “Section A” dealt with the students’ personal and institutional information such as the respondents’ school proprietorship, sex, level and so on.

In Section B, items sought for information based on level of usage of mobile technologies, “Section C” items sought for information based on undergraduates’ self-efficacy in solving academic problems with use of mobile technologies. The copies of questionnaire were administered to students of the stated Universities by the researcher. It was structured in a clear and simple language as this enabled the respondents to provide relevant answers to the questionnaire items.

Data Analysis

The analysis and results obtained from the data collected from respondents based on research questions and research hypotheses are as follow;





Table 1: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Gender.

Gender No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
Male 169 58.9
Female 118 41.1
Total 287 100.0






Table 1 shows that the total number of male respondents were 169 (58.9%) while the female respondents were 118 (41.1%). This shows that male formed the highest number of the respondents.

Age Differences Frequency Percentage (%)
Below 17 years 7 2.4
17-20 years 104 36.2
21-25 years 149 51.9
26 years and above 27 9.4
Total 287 100.0

Table 2: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Age Difference.













Table 2 shows that respondents below 17years old are 7(2.4%), respondents between 17-20 years old are 104 (36.2%), and respondents between 21-25years old are 149 (51.9%) and respondents that are 26years old and above are 27 (9.4%) respectively. This shows that respondents between the ages of 21-25years formed the highest number of respondents for the study.

Answering Research Questions

Research Question 1:  What is the most commonly used mobile technology by students in Nigerian Universities?

Table 3: Most commonly used mobile technology by students in Nigerian Universities.

S/N Mobile Technologies Frequency (Users) Percentage (%)
1 IPad 3 1.0
2 IPhone 20 7.0
3 Blackberry Phone 86 30.0
4 Android Phone 148 51.6
5 Windows Phone 7 2.4
6 Symbian Phone 6 2.1
7 Java Phone 17 5.9
Total 287 100.0


Table 3 reveals that Android phone has the highest number of users among the mobile technologies with 148 (51.6%), followed by Blackberry Phone with 86 (30.0%) users, iPhone with 20 (7.0%) users, Java Phone with 17 (5.9%) users, Windows Phone with 7 (2.4%) users, Symbian Phone with 6 (2.1%) users and iPad with 3 (1.0%) users, which is the least used among the mobile technologies. Therefore, based on the figures in table 3, it can be inferred that Android Phone is the most used mobile technology by the students in Nigerian Universities.

Research Question 2: What is the students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes?

Table 4: Students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes.

Items Level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes. Mean (X)
1 I use my mobile technologies for academic purposes. 3.35
2 I use my mobile technologies to check my courseware online. 3.26
3 I do use my mobile technologies to check my e-mail. 3.42
4 I do use my mobile technologies to download educational information. 3.36
5 I do use my mobile technologies to collaborate online with friends on educational issues. 3.15
Grand Mean (X) 3.31


Table 4 reveals that students do use their mobile technologies to check e-mails and was ranked highest with the mean score 3.42. This was followed by “students do use their mobile technologies to download educational information, students do use their mobile technologies for academic purposes, students do use their mobile technologies to check their courseware online and finally students do use their mobile technologies to collaborate online with friends on educational issues” having the mean scores of 3.36, 3.35, 3.26 and 3.15 respectively. However, the grand mean score for the undergraduates’ level of usage of mobile technologies was found to be 3.31. Using 2.0 as the average benchmark, it can then be inferred that undergraduates’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes is high.

Testing of Hypotheses

HO1:     There is no significant difference between male and female students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

To determine whether there was significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on gender or not, independent sample t-test was carried out. The results are as shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Independent sample t-test on students’ self-efficacy in using mobile technologies based on gender.

GENDER N X SD Df   t Sig.(2 tailed) Decision
MALE 169 3.11 0.36 285 -0.99 0.32 Not Rejected
FEMALE 118 3.15 0.34


Table 5 shows that there was no significant difference between male and female under-graduates’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

This is reflected in the result: t (285) = -0.99, p>0.05. Thus, the hypothesis was not rejected. By implication the stated null hypothesis was established thus: There is no significant difference between male and female undergraduates’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on gender. Based on the mean scores of the male (3.11) and female (3.15) on self-efficacy, it shows that both male and female undergraduates had a high self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

HO2:     There is no significant difference among different ages of students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

To determine whether there was significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on age difference or not, Pearson chi-square analysis was carried out. The results are as shown in Table 6.

Table 6: Pearson Chi-square analysis on Students’ self-efficacy in using mobile technologies based on age difference.

Value Df Asymp. Sig (2 sided) Decision
Pearson Chi-square 40.974a 45 0.64 Not rejected
No of Valid Cases 287


  1. 48 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.

Table 6 shows that there was no significant difference among different ages of students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems. This is reflected in the result: X(45) = 40.97, p>0.05. Thus, the hypothesis was not rejected. By implication the stated null hypothesis was established thus: There is no significant difference among different ages of students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems. Therefore, it shows that all the students in the four age groups categorized, had high self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems.

Summary of Findings

The findings were generated based on the data analysis obtained from the research and were as summarized as follows;

  1. The most used mobile technology by the students in Nigerian selected universities is Android phone.
  2. The students’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes is high.
  3. There was no significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on gender.
  4. There was no significant difference in students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on age difference.


The most used mobile technology by the undergraduates in Kwara State was examined using research question 1. Android phone was found to be the most used mobile technology by the undergraduates in Kwara State among other mobile technologies such as; ipads, iphones, blackberry phones, windows phones, Symbian phones and Java phones. This was in accordance with Nigerian-bulletin (2015), which stated that android has succeeded in controlling the low-end mobile market with smartphones capable of running the Latest Android Operating System.

Based on the mean scores of the results of undergraduates’ level of usage of mobile technologies for educational purposes, the respondents’ level of usage was high. Research question 2 was used to examine this. Although, some respondents revealed that they do averagely use their mobile technologies to collaborate with friends online on educational issues. Yet, the grand mean score showed “highly used”. This revealed that the undergraduates are using their mobile technologies for educational purposes very well.

The undergraduates’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on gender was examined using hypothesis 1 and the results of the t-test established no significant difference between male and female undergraduates’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems. Also, hypothesis 2 sought to find out the self-efficacy of undergraduates on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on age and the chi-square results showed no significant difference between undergraduates’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems based on age.


This research sightseen the students’ self-efficacy and usability of mobile technologies for learning in some selected universities in Nigeria. The result obtained from data analysis in this study showed that the most used mobile technology by students in Nigerian universities is Android phone. It is designated that the students’ level of mobile technologies usage was high. The findings in the research also established that students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies for solving academic problems was very good without any gender disparity.

Moreover, there was no significant difference on students’ self-efficacy on use of mobile technologies to solve academic problems based on age difference. This implies that all the four highlighted age groups possess good self-efficacy in using the mobile technologies for educational purposes.


Sequel to the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations were made;

  1. Students should keep using their mobile technologies for educational purposes because they will definitely enhance their academic performance.
  2. Lecturers should motivate students more on using mobile technologies by giving them academic problems that could be solved on the mobile technologies and submit to the lecturer’s mail via their mobile technologies.
  3. Students should be more conversant with their mobile technologies usage as at when due in order to develop more self-efficacy skills in using them academically wise.
  4. Both male and female undergraduates should get more motivated on use of mobile technologies so as to meet up with the 21st century learning.


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Dr Abdul-Hameed Akorede ZAKARIYAH


[email protected]

Director Quality Assurance Unit

Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin


Prof. Adebayo Issah RAHEEM


[email protected]

Nana-Aishat College of Education, Ilorin


Hussain Kehinde GARBA


[email protected]

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Baushi


Abdur-Rahman Muhibudeen AIKU

08067025406/ 08074539324

[email protected]

Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin


Mahmood Suleiman JAMIU


[email protected]

Kwara State College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin



This quasi-experimental research study investigated the effects of instructional material on the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in upper basic schools in Ilorin West. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 respondents from each of the 5 purposive sampling selected supper basic schools making total numbers of 100 participants. Post-test instrument of teacher-made Islamic Studies class test on topic taught was used for the collection of data in this study, while the t-test statistical tool was used for the analysis based on the three hypotheses raised. It was discovered that adequate implementation of instructional materials has a significant effect on the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in upper basic school due to its ability to facilitate learning among all variables of students being examined. The study recommended that government should establish more Educational Technology Centres at every local government education authorities and make provision for the teachers to be trained and retrained in these centres on improvisation and implementation of instructional material in their teaching field, so as to make their teaching more meaningful to the students.


Keywords: Instructional Material; Teaching; Learning; Islamic Studies; Upper Basic Schools.




It is generally accepted that Islamic Studies is the modification of Islamic Education which simply means the knowledge of Islam by which its doctrine, culture and sciences are expected to be taught as their pieces of evidence in the Qur’an, Hadiths and other Islamic Sciences. Therefore, it can be defined as the totality of learning experience which centres on the intra and interrelationships between human beings and between human creatures and their creator (Abubakar, 2004).

The learning of Islamic Education is essential for every Muslim because it is a gateway for knowing Islam and its teachings. Through Islamic Studies, the character building of a good Muslim as an individual and a member of society would be developed. Islamic Studies plays a significant role in a Muslim’s life as asserted by Syed Ali Ashraf (1985: 24) who defines Islamic Studies as “an education which trains the sensibility of pupils in such a manner that in their attitude to life, their actions and decisions and approach to all kinds of knowledge, they are governed by the deeply felt ethical values of Islam” (Mustafa & Salim, 2012). Its teaching is very important in the life of individual Muslims and the society in general because it caters for all aspect of human’s life physically, mentally, morally, socially, economically, politically as well as spiritually in order to live harmoniously in this life and gain felicity in the hereafter (Akorede, 2001; Wan-Jusoh & Jusoff, 2009).

This type of education, formally taught through the establishment of both Makaranta Alow (preliminary Arabic and Islamic School) and Makaranta Ilimi (Higher or Advance Arabic and Islamic Schools) in Nigeria, changed to Islamic Studies when it gained access and was slotted in to the main stream of Nigerian Education Curriculum where it had been hitherto called Islamic Religion Knowledge (IRK), then Islamic Religion Studies (IRS), but settling for the title Islamic Studies in 1982. The Muslim scholars preferred the title “Islamic Studies” because it is more comprehensive and therefore appropriate to the subject matter (Akorede, 2001). Thus, the immeasurable importance of Islamic Studies, which the scholars want the students to attain, necessitated for the wideness of Islamic curriculum and syllabus.

Islamic Studies has variously interconnected sub-divisions for upper basic schools syllabus known as junior secondary school. The division is six: Qur’an, Hadiths and Tawhid (Islamic theology); Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudents); Sirah (History of prophets and other notable men and women) and Tahdhib (Moral Education) (Arikewuyo, 2004; Abubakar, 2004).

However, upon all immeasurable importance and complexities and logical dynamic of this subject in school and society at large, the teaching and learning of this subject still face series of problems of which availability and application of appropriate instructional materials hold a vital position. It is thus the desire of this paper to investigate the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies.


What are Instructional Materials?

Instructional materials commonly referred to as instructional aids, beyond simple aids, to include instructional technology, communication media, educational technology or technological materials used to facilitate teaching and learning for better results (Olawale, 2013; Okwelle & Allagoa, 2014)  In the same vein, Uzuegbu, Mbadiwe and Anulobi (2013) refered to instructional materials as any device used to assist the instructor in the preparation of a lesson, teaching of the lesson and facilitate students’ learning of the subject matter. They include those objects that are commercially acquired or improvised by the teacher to make conceptual abstract more concrete and practical to the learner (Iwu, Ijioma, Onoja & Nzewuihe, 2011). They are relevant materials utilized by the teacher during instructional proceeds for the purpose of making the contents of the instructions more practical and less vague. Instructional materials are also described as a concrete or physical object which provides sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-Obu, 2005).

Thus, instructional materials could be regarded as the information dissemination devices used in the classroom for easy transfer of learning. They provide the first-hand experience where possible or of vicarious one where only that is feasible. The importance of Instructional Materials in any teaching/learning process cannot be overemphasized. This is the fact that such materials enhance, facilitate and make teaching/learning easy, lively and concrete (Ajani, 2013). They are also materials which the teacher uses in supplementing his teachings. Instructional materials include materials used to facilitate learning for better results. This materials are majorly divided into three categories, namely:

Visual Instructional Materials

These are materials employed in a teaching and learning situation which can only be seen.They can only be visualized, they appeal to sight alone. These objects do not produce sounds and they cannot be heard. Examples of visual instructional materials include drawings, cardboards carrying inscriptions, pictures, flashcards, photographs, calendars, diagrams, stickers, handbills, posters etc.

Audio Instructional Materials

These are materials that can produce sound but the speaker cannot be seen. These types of materials are equally used in teaching and learning situations and there are areas where they are of much relevance to specific topics where other materials cannot be employed for usage. These includes radio or telephone or tape-player

Audio Visual Instructional Materials

The third group of instructional materials is audiovisual materials. These are materials that combine both sounds and pictures. They are items that learners can see and at the same time be heard. The best example here is the teacher who can be seen and be heard by the learners. These objects make learning real to the pupils. Examples of audio-visual instructional materials are television, video CD player, video cassettes, computer systems, film projectors, CD Rom, Yahoo Messenger, Skype on the internet etc. (Ajani, 2013).

Need for Instructional Materials in Islamic Studies

In the earliest time, many of Islamic scholars used to condemn the uses of some certain type of instructional materials such as pictogram, or picture, image or stature and any other related objects. With the aims that Islamic doctrine did not permit the uses of such things. Instead, they adapted to the traditional method of teaching where tablet, a copy of Holy Qur’an and some little Arabic and Islamic books couple with the cane were the main instructional materials applied by then. As a result of this, the passage of Islamic education to their students were relatively hampered. Later they discovered that effective and efficient teaching-learning process in Islamic studies could hardly achieved without the effective application of adequate instructional materials. Also, as the civilization advanced further they later discovered that uses of instructional materials to facilitate teaching-learning process had nothing to do with Islamic doctrine (Akorede, 2001; Bidmos, 2003).

Bidmos (2003) mentioned some instructional materials and their area of application in the teaching and learning of Islamic studies: Tapes are used in the teaching of textual studies of Holy Qur’an for the teacher who does not know how to read Qur’an with Tejweed fluently; video CD and related may be highly useful in the teaching of Hajj rites, where it shows how specific action is performed like Tawaf, Sa’y between Safa and Marwa, standing on the month of Arafah and others; maps and world glob will be good for teaching of Islam in West Africa to trace the trade routes and olden days of Islamic centre of learning, while apparatus containing pictures of different stages of ablution and Salats will be useful in teaching Wudu’ and Salat; just to mention few. Some of these items could be improvised by Islamic Studies teachers in collaboration with students, while some are more expensive and could be provided by the school authorities or by the government.


The objectives of this study are to:

  1. To find out the effect of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in Ilorin West
  2. To find out the difference effect of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic male and female students in Ilorin West
  3. To find out the difference effect of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in public and private schools in Ilorin West


HO1 There is no significant effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in Ilorin West         .

HO2 There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among male and female upper basic students in Ilorin West

HO3 There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among public and private upper basic students in Ilorin West


This study applied quasi-experimental research design post-test control group only. One hundred (100) participants were randomly selected from five purposively selected Junior Secondary Schools within Ilorin West. That is, twenty (20) participants in each school. To implement the procedure, in each school all the participants were grouped into two classes named A and B for both experimental and control groups respectively. Then the experimental groups were taught a topic in Islamic studies “five daily prayers” with the application of instructional material (Design chart shows the diagram of five daily prayers), while the control groups were taught the same topic without any instructional material. Then post-test instrument of teacher-made Islamic studies class test on topic taught was given to both groups. The results got from the experiment were subjected to a statistical tool of t-test statistical analysis in order to test the hypotheses stated.


The results were based on the formulated hypotheses for study

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in Ilorin West.

Table 1: Showing the summary of the t-test of HO1

Class Group size Scores Mean scores SD Df t-calculated t-table
A 5 870 174 582 8 5. 28 2.306


B 5 566 113.2 2082.8

The result in table 1 indicates that the calculated t-value of 5.28 is greater than the critical t-value of 2.306. On this basis, the null hypothesis which states that “There is no significant effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in Ilorin West ” is rejected. Thus, there is a significant effects in favour of the experimental group.

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among male and female upper basic students in Ilorin West.

Table 2: Showing the summary of the t-test of HO2

Class Group size Scores Mean scores SD Df t-calculated t-table
A 10 166 16.6 20.4 18 -3. 68 2.101


B 10 187 8.1 8.1

The result in table 2 indicates that the calculated t-value of -3.68 is less than the critical t-value of 2.101. On this basis, the null hypothesis which states that “There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among male and female upper basic students in Ilorin West” is retained. It means there is no significant difference effect because both performed creditably after their exposure to the treatment.

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among public and private upper basic students in Ilorin West

Table 3: Showing the summary of the t-test of HO3

Class Group size Scores Mean scores SD Df t-calculated t-table
A 10 160 16 54 18 -3. 29 2.101


B 10 186 8.6 24

The result in table 3 indicates that the calculated t-value of -3.29 is less than the critical t-value of 2.101. On this basis, the null hypothesis which states that “There is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among public and private upper basic students in Ilorin West” is retained. It means there is no significant difference effect because both performed creditably after their exposure to the treatment.


The first finding disagrees with the hypothesis one which states that there is no significant effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among upper basic students in Ilorin West because experimental groups performed significantly better than that of control groups, due to their exposure to the independent variable. This in line with Sambo (2004) who opened that relevance of instructional materials to the teaching of Islamic Studies can never be overemphasized as it facilitates learning by aiding remembering. It also agrees with the research findings of Opeloye (1991) in Akorede (2001) that learner remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear and 50% of what they hear and see accordingly.

The second finding holds that there is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among male and female upper basic students in Ilorin West because both of them performed creditably due to their exposure to the treatment. That is, proper application of instructional materials adequately appeals to learner senses irrespective of sex. This in line with Olawale (2013) who proved that instructional material can provide members of a group with a common or joint experience (irrespective of age and gender). They also break language barriers and ease difficulties and in the end make the lesson more meaningful. They save time and thus enable students to grasp ideas more effectively and faster.

The third finding concludes that there is no significant difference effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Islamic studies among public and private upper basic students in Ilorin West because both students from the schools performed creditably due to their exposure to the treatment. This indicates that irrespective of nature of schools, proper utilization of adequate instructional materials will surely facilitate teaching-learning process. This relates with Akorede (2001)’s finding that researchers have proved that Instructional materials when properly used in teaching-learning situations, can accomplish a lot of complex tasks and upgrade learners’ academic exposures and help the school to have better results from well-learned students.


Based on the result finding, it is vivid that there is a positive relationship between the instructional material and the effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in upper basic schools. Also, the effect of instructional materials has nothing to do with gender because the proper application of instructional materials adequately appeals to learner senses irrespective of their sexes. Irrespective of the schools’ nature or proprietorship, proper utilization of adequate instructional materials will surely enhance teaching-learning process in their schools.


Based on findings so far, the following recommendations are provided in order to bring about adequate improvement in the provision of quality, quantity and effective utilization of instructional materials to facilitate teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in upper basic schools in Ilorin West and Nigeria in general.

  • The government should provide enough funds for schools for the procurement of instructional materials
  • They should establish more Educational Technology Centres at every local government education authorities and make provision for the teachers to be trained and retrained on improvisation and implementation of instructional material in their teaching field.
  • Islamic Studies teachers together with their students should try to improvise simple instructional materials like pictures, poster charts, flash cards, maps and many others to improve the teaching-learning process, in order to make the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies meaningful to the students irrespective of their sexes.
  • Also, the government should attach more recognition to religious education and fully back it up with funds as they did for science and technology related subjects and employ more professionally trained Islamic Studies teachers who are capable of applying instructional materials properly in their teaching subject in order to facilitate effective teaching and learning of Islamic Studies.



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Uzuegbu, C. P., Mbadiwe, H. C., Anulobi, J. C. (2013). Availability and utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of library education in tertiary institutions in Abia state. Woodpecker Journal of Educational Research, 2(8), 111–120. Retrieved from

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RAFIU, Surajudeen

BELLO, Jamiu Babatunde

Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Ilorin


The main purpose of this study is to assess the utilization of instructional materials in teaching Basic Technology in junior secondary schools in Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State. Technology teachers across the selected junior secondary schools from Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State constituted the population of the study. Simple random sampling technique would be adopted to select the respondents of the study. The data for the study were obtained through questionnaire, while the data collected for this study were analyzed using percentages and t-test statistics. The results of the findings showed that most of the instructional materials sampled are not readily available to basic technology teachers except the following materials: screw drivers, hammer, chalkboard, basic technology textbooks, charts, posters and diagram. Also, the qualifications of basic technology teachers do have an influence on their utilization of instructional resources. It was recommended among others that there is need for the employment of more qualified technology teachers who are conversant with the application of modern instructional media in teaching the subject. The experienced teachers need to be motivated with the provision of incentives such as merit awards, regular promotion and so on.


Education, according to Abiri (2005), is a process by which the values of society are transmitted across generation through a well -defined method such as knowledge, skill, attitudes, believes and so on. Education also contributes to the development of the society. For any community to grow and develop economically, politically and morally, both male and female members of such society or community need a very sound education so as to make an individual a useful member of the society. It is noted that education is the totality of the experience made available to the individual in order to make him develop an all-round personality and be useful to himself and his community (Jimoh, 2004).

Though there are many instructional media that are in existence for use in various school systems which include the projected and non- projected media, which are designed and used specifically to achieve or fulfill the objective of teaching and learning. These media include the following: flip chat, computer, film strips, motion pictures, audio recording, charts, pictures, model and many others {Yusuf 2009}.

Recently, Basic Technology at the upper Basic level has been combined together with other sciences subjects to become Basic Science and Technology, (NERDC, 2012). However, some of the objectives of teaching Basic Science and Technology as stated in the curriculum include; to acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology; apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs. Some of the instructional materials stated for teaching Basic Technology are Charts, Toys, Cardboards, Rubber, Pictures, Computer and Graphic Packages. More so, the important of instructional materials in teaching and learning could not be undermined.

Lack of instructional materials has been identified as one of the problem militating against the development of education in Nigeria. In some schools where there are instructional materials, the unstable of electricity supply will be a barrier; the students in the remote areas also have not been able to enjoy the benefits of electricity powered instructional materials (Adegbija, 1990) The use of instructional materials plays major roles in facilitating effective teaching and learning. Any of the instructional materials out there cannot function without the use of electricity and thereby standing as a barrier to the usefulness {William, 2005}.

Nowadays, there is solution to the problems poised by lack of electricity to the use of instructional materials; one of this is the use of flip chart. In this, the modern technology and the old technology can be married together to produce an effective instructional package that will serve in its entire ramification to bring about effective teaching and learning in Nigeria schools {Onasanya and Adegbija 2005} In any given society, the teacher is the pillar on which the success or failure of any education depends (Opadokun, 2002).  Abdulsalam and Issa (2002) submitted that, “The position of the teacher as one who imparts knowledge and skills cannot be overemphasized”.  The roles of teachers in achieving the objectives of any school or subject curriculum is enormous.  Salami (1999) noted that a teacher is a curriculum interpreter because; he analyzes the syllabus that is related to discipline.  In other words, a teacher in Basic Technology needs to know how subject matter and then needs to know all aspects of educational technology so as to enable him/her to implement the curriculum properly.  That is while Omoniyi (2002) asserted that, the major implementers of planned curriculum are teachers.

A Basic Technology teacher has a great influence on the lives of his/her students. He/she lays the foundation for the students’ beliefs, attitudes and conducts which may remain with them for the rest of their lives. He/she motivates the students to learn what is considered a great responsibility.

Further still, the qualification, experience and attitudes of a teacher towards students serve as the facilitating or militating factors against the students` academic achievement in any subject matter. This is probably why Emina (1986) opined that teacher`s attitudes towards teaching have a great influence on students` achievement in the given subject. Omoniyi (2000) stressed that unless teachers are adequately and competently trained to implement various curricular, remarkable attainment of the desired result would be difficult. It is a fact that the quality of the teacher education received while in training would go a long way in determining the competence of the trainee when later he/she becomes certificated.

The importance of instructional media has been accepted widely, that the students who have the advantage of being taught with well selected wisely utilized instructional media learn more effectively than those who are only provided with verbal instruction. The main reason for this is because well -chosen instructional media tends to present concepts in such a manner as to create interest and motivation. Learners gain more from instruction when they become involved through their own interest and desire, it is a well- known fact that motivation and desire for learning are essential elements in meaningful instruction. Under normal circumstances students are expected to physically see and hear, if they cannot do either, then there is a barrier to physical perception. The more a child has seen and heard, the more he wants to see and hear.

Varied instructional media could make the subject matter clearer to students who come from different backgrounds with varying abilities. Thus, they foster effective learning not only for the child who reads and writes, but also for the child who is not verbally gifted. They allow slow and average students to absorb lessons through as many senses as possible while freeing the rapid learners, the well- grounded students and the good reader to proceed as quickly and in as much depth as desired (Umar, 2010).

Assessment is a means by which the teacher obtains information about knowledge gained, behavioral changes and other aspects of the development of learners.  It involves the deliberate effort of the teacher to measure the effect of the instructional process as well as the overall effect of school learning on the behavior of learners.  Assessment include all aspects of school experience both within and outside the classroom.  It provides feedback data to both the teachers, learners as well as other stakeholders in education.  It also serves as basis for various decision and actions.  In a sense, assessment is quantitative.  This is because assessors usually arrive at an index of the behaviour, skill, or ability being assessed.  The index itself must necessarily vary from learner to learns and as much retains the quality of comparability, in this wise, assessment enables us to account for individual differences and take care of problems confronting each learning( Umar, 2010).The conclusions showed that utilization of materials is very important in order to achieve the goal of teaching. All these are concerned with the influence of instructional resources on students’ performance in other subjects.

Statement of the problem

Studies have been carried out in the past by researchers on the role of instructional media in teaching and learning. Some of these studies also focused or investigated the availability and utilization of instructional media in various subjects taught at junior secondary schools of various states of the country. Jekayinfa, (1998) conducted a study on the effect of instructional materials on academic performance of students in history in Ogbomosho.

The present researcher however observed that most of the previous researches were not done on availability and utilization of instructional materials in Basic Technology and most of these researches were not carried out in Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State.  As such, the present study aims at filling this gap. This constitutes the problem of the study.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the utilization of instructional materials in teaching Basic Technology in junior secondary schools in Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State. Specifically, the research is designed to:

  1. Find out the availability of instructional materials for the teaching of Basic Technology in Irepo Local Government Area, Oyo State.
  2. Examine how teachers of basic technology utilize instructional materials.
  3. Determine the extent to which Basic Technology teachers utilize instructional materials in teaching their subjects.
  4. Determine problems or hindrance militating against utilization of instructional materials.
  5. Find out the availability of audio-visual aid instructional materials available for teaching of Basic Technology in Irepo Local Government Area, Oyo State?

Research Questions

The following research questions are raised to guide this study:

  1. What instructional materials are available to teachers of Basic Technology in secondary schools in Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State?
  2. In what ways do teachers utilize instructional materials?
  3. What are the problems or hindrance militating against utilization of instructional materials?

To what extent are Basic Technology teachers utilize instructional materials in teaching their subjects?


Technology teachers across the selected junior secondary schools from Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State constituted the population of the study. Simple random sampling technique would be adopted to select the respondents of the study. The data for the study were obtained through questionnaire, while the data collected for this study were analyzed using percentages and t-test statistics.

Hypotheses Testing

Research Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference between the utilization of available instructional materials in teaching basic technology based on experience in junior secondary school in Irepo Local Government Area, Oyo State?

Table 5: Result of Chi-Square Analysis of Difference between the Utilization of Instructional Materials and Teachers Experiences

VARIABLES Frequently Used Occasionally Used Not Used Df CHI-VALUE Sig REMARK
Very Experience 63(51.3) 15(24.5) 92(94.2) 4      
Experience 137(143.1) 181(68.2) 256(262.7)   10.332 .035 Reject
Less-Experience 81(86.6) 38(41.3) 168(159.1)        
Total 281(281.0) 134(134.0) 516(516.0)        

Results in Table 5 show a chi-square analysis showing difference between the utilization of available instructional materials and basic technology teachers in the junior secondary schools. The table shows a calculated chi value of 11.332 with 4 degrees of freedom computed at 0.05. Since the sig value (.035) is lower than 0.05, therefore hypothesis 1 is rejected while alternative hypothesis is accepted. This implies that experience of a teacher have significant influence on the instructional materials utilization.

Research Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference between the utilization of available instructional materials in teaching basic technology based on qualification in junior secondary school in Irepo Local Government Area, Oyo State?

Table 6: Result of Chi-Square Analysis of Difference between the Utilization of Instructional Materials and Teacher Qualifications

VARIABLES Frequently Used Occasionally Used Not Used Df CHI-VALUE Sig REMARK
Diploma in Tech. Edu. 5(10.3) 29(5.2) 0(18.5) 4      
Nig. Certification in Edu. 174(158.6) 65(79.6) 283(283.9)   139.16 .000 Reject
Bachelor of Sci.(Tech.Edu) 102(112.1) 47(56.2) 220(200.7)        
Total 583(583.0) 41(41.0) 281(281.0)        

Results in Table 6 show a chi-square analysis showing difference between the utilization of available instructional materials and basic technology teacher’s qualifications in the junior secondary schools. The table shows a calculated chi value of 139.159 with 4 degrees of freedom computed at 0.05. Since the sig value (.000) is lower than 0.05, therefore hypothesis 2 is rejected while alternative hypothesis is accepted. This implies that qualifications of basic technology teacher have significant influence on the instructional materials utilization.

 Summary of the Findings

Based on the data collected, analyzed and interpreted, the following findings were obtained

  1. Most of the instructional materials sampled are not readily available to basic technology teachers except the following materials: screw drivers, hammer, chalkboard, basic technology textbooks, charts, posters and diagram.
  2. Most of the instructional materials sampled are not readily available to basic technology teachers but the following materials were frequently utilized: screw driver, chisel, hammer, vissuals, charts, diagrams, posters, and chalkboard and the under listed materials were also utilized occasionally such as saw, flipcards, and flashcards.
  3. The majority of the respondents agreed that, the extent to which basic technology teachers utilized instructional materials in the junior secondary schools is unfavorably low.
  4. The qualifications of basic technology teachers does have an influence on their utilization of instructional resources.

Discussion of Findings

There seems to be similarity in the findings of this research when compared to those of some other researchers. The findings of this study indicated that the qualification of Basic Technology teachers influences the use of instructional media. Significant difference was found in the qualified and unqualified Basic Technology teachers to the use of instructional media. This is in line with the findings of Adedeji, (2006) who submitted that there is relationship between teacher’s qualification and their use of instructional media while teaching.

In addition, as evident in the findings on the hypotheses tested, there is significant difference in the attitudes of experienced and less experienced teachers towards the use of instructional media. This indicates that experienced teachers make use of instructional media than the less experienced ones.

The findings of this study is in line with Abdullahi, (2006) who opined that varied instructional media make the subject matter clearer to students who come from different family background with varying abilities. The findings also are in line with what Jekayinfa, (1998) conducted a study on the effect of instructional media on academic performance of students in History. From the analysis, another finding was conducted by Ojo, (1993) who evaluated science instructional material. Their conclusion showed that, utilization of materials is very important in order to archive the goals of teaching.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Although the importance of instructional media in teaching and learning process has been stressed over the years by various researchers, the study served as an addition to those research works on the place of Basic Technology in the teaching and learning process. Based on the findings and discussions it was concluded that relevant instructional materials are readily available for teaching basic technology in junior secondary schools in Irepo Local Government Area of Oyo State. Some of the instructional media were not available at junior secondary schools. Based on the findings in this study and the conclusion reached, the following recommendations were made.

  1. There is need for the employment of more qualified technology teachers who are conversant with the application of modern instructional media in teaching the subject.
  2. The experienced teachers need to be motivated with the provision of incentives such as merit awards, regular promotion and so on. Doing this could revitalize their interest in making appropriate use of instructional media during the teaching process.
  3. Constant seminars and workshops should be organize for teachers on the importance of instructional media and its application to teaching process.
  4. Government should assist in provision of more modern instructional media in the secondary schools.
  5. The Ministry of Education should be inspecting and monitoring the use of available instructional media by the teachers during the teaching process.
  6. There is need for provision of modern instructional media for teaching the subject. These include overhead projector, satellite, computers, ICT and so on.



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Ogundeji A. OLUSEGUN


Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Alagbado, Ilorin Kwara State




Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Alagbado, Ilorin Kwara State



Nana Aishat Memorial College of Education, Alagbado, Ilorin Kwara State




The purpose of this work was to investigate the attitudes of Biology teachers to improvisation of instructional materials in secondary schools located in Ilorin Kwara State.  In specific terms, the objectives of the study were to (i) Ascertain the level of improvisation achieved by Biology teachers, (ii) Find out whether gender and experience of the teachers as well as ownership and age of the school are important determinants of the attitudes of Biology teachers to improvisation.

Findings from the study included the following: (i) the level of improvisation of instructional materials among Biology teachers in senior secondary schools was just average though the female teachers had a higher level of improvisation. (ii) Both male and female biology teachers had positive attitude to improvisation (iii) Teachers have more confidence in themselves with teaching using improvisation (iv) Teachers at times avoid topic that require the use of improvisation materials which show negative attitudes.

Therefore, the paper recommended that biology teacher should engage themselves in constructing instructional materials to add to the ones available.  In addition there should be constant monitoring and supervision of teacher to ensure that teachers use instructional materials in presenting their lessons.


Improvisation is the art of replacing some sophisticated and expensive materials with those made by the teachers and student to achieve the objectives of teaching (Malto and Binimote, 2010).  Improvisation is the substitution or creation of cheap and simple alternatives by the teacher or his nominee.  It is an act of using any production of similar or near similar forms to the actual instructional materials in order to facilitate teaching learning (National Teachers’ Institute, NTI 2008), Olatona (2008) defined improvisation as a means of providing a very close substitute of an item when for reasons of availability in, size, cost, and handling risk, the real object cannot be made available in the classroom for instructional purpose.

Balogun (1980) divided instructional materials into two: level one comprises those which are termed technology in education, characterized by the audio-visual aids.  Teaching functions are enriched and supplemented by the array of teaching machines that under control of the teacher.  Level two is termed technology of education.  It is characterized by a systematic approach based on clearly stated learning objectives.  Technology in education and technology of education are usually fused together to maximize the process of teaching and learning using available material.

Improvisation is categorized in two, namely role substitution and role stimulation.  The former involves little medication of the original item before it can be used to fulfill the new function.  An example using glass tumbler as beaker, later involves a construction of an item or apparatus to meet a need which for reason of cost and/or availability cannot be met by commercially produced ones (Olatona, 2003, Olatona 2008).

Examples are the digestive system and alimentary canal.

Many investigations claimed that many factors are responsible for teacher’s attitudes towards improvisation teachers have little or no knowledge of what to improvise (Sanwa, 1985).  Gender factor also important in improvisation.  Female teachers succumb to the belief that improvisation is a tedious tacks, Odunsin (1984) believed that science teacher’s attitudes towards improvisation play a major role in determining students’ academic performance.  When a science teacher shows a positive attitude to science teaching and improvisation of instructional materials, the students are motivated and science learning ceases to be difficult, remote, irrelevant and meaningless.  Bomide (1980) opined that in a period of economic recession, the teachers need to take improvisation seriously.  Aganga (1981) pointed out that the poor performance of students in biology practical is attributable to teachers’ negative attitude to improvisation.  Also Ali (1983) found that teachers positive attitude to improvisation in laboratory classes goes a long way to helping students to attain higher levels of learning in science.

Concept of Instructional Materials

Resources material otherwise known as learning instructional material-LIMS.  Occupy a central theme in the teaching/learning process they could also be referred to as educational media, instructional technology, media technology or teachings aids as it is most commonly called by classroom teacher.  According to Abimbade (1997), resources materials are “Whatever materials used in the process of instruction”.  They are a broad range of resources which can be used to facilitate effective instruction.  They indicate a systematic way of designing, carryout and evaluating the total process of learning and communication and employing human and nor human resources to bring out none meaningful and effective instruction (NTI, 1990).

In the other word, resource materials are those human and non-human resource that are considered as indispensable requirement in the teaching/learning process.  They are indeed those educational resource, materials, item or equipment personal and infrastructure in the form audio-rituals, print, or no print, projected or non-projected and other forms of telecommunication gadgetry-radio television video, Tape recorder (VTR) and the like (Percival & Ellintion, (1984).

The productions of these resources have been made easier in recent time due to the rapid development in modern technology.  Despite this however, it is interesting to note that teacher are almost ignorant of the availability and the relevance of these resource (N.E.R.C. 1971).  It is indeed paramount for these involved in the learning process to get acquainted with these resources so as to be meet the recent in their profession.

The classification could also be made according to the dimension of the resource.  It could also be classified in terms of wares: hardware’s and software’s classification also exist according to requirement for application in the classroom; i.e. non-projected and projected materials.  Sometimes too, it take the form of non-print, print and electronic material as other classification (Kurange, 2001).

Whatever the grouping or clarification, it is paramount to know which resource material appeal to which sense (s).  This will further help it to choose the resource that will appeal to as many of the sense as possible for the teaching.

Basically, the two main senses through which we gain most of our knowledge are those of sight and hearing.  That however, is not to say that other senses-touch, smell and taste could not reinforce the others.

Meaning and Nature of Improvisation

Adeyanju (2000) defined improvisation in teaching as making judgment about what to do with a piece of material or equipment in the classroom to solve a scientific or technological problem.  It means finding alternatives that will still function as the unavailable idea resources.  Improvisation is potent in reducing abstraction of concept in science.  Improvisation is the act of using material obtainable from the local environment or designed by a teacher or with the help of local personnel to enhance instruction (Kamoru & Umeano, 2006).  Iheigbulem (2007) defined improvisation as the act of substituting for the standard equipment or instructional material not available with locally made equipment.  Landu (2000) in his own view defined improvisation as the act of using alternative teaching aids to enhance teaching and learning process.  Likewise, Hodgson (1999) believed that it is a more difficult word to define than literature.  Improvisation can be viewed as substituting, replacing or altering creative arts material for a particular function.

There are three forms of improvisation:-

  1. Mere replication: Bomide (2008) refers to this as a role stimulation involving actual construction of apparatus as an imminently measure.
  2. Visual aid representing reality.
  • Demonstration of unique and alternative arrangement of equipment and materials to reach concept principle or generalization.

Mkpanane (2005) opined that an improvised material must essentially serve the purpose for that which it is intend to serve.  It is not just providing a piece of material as substitution of what is not available.

Balogun (1982) said biology is peculiar among the science subject, in being a subject in extensive improvisation is possible and far most of which only little technical skill is involved.  This means that biology as a subject is activity oriented and the teaching of biology without learning material will certainly result to poor performance in the course. In the nature of improvisation, Onasayan (2008) noted that improvisation demand adventure, creativity and perseverance.

The Need for Improvisation of Simple Science Material

It is relatively easy to devise materials for primary and secondary local science materials; at the same time it is much harder to generate science teacher’s enthusiasm for and confidence in improvisation.  In spite the aforementioned improvisation should not be seen as no go area for the following advantages as given by Allsop (1991) thus:-

  1. It is cheaper, so there is more apparatus available for individual or group experiments, in addition to teacher demonstrations.
  2. The concern over loss, breakage and repairs, is reduced, therefore, equipment is more frequently used.
  3. Students are made aware of the scientific principles applied to everyday things, not just special and sophisticated apparatus imported from abroad.
  4. Attention is drawn to the need to estimate accuracy.
  5. A classroom can often be used if a laboratory is not available.
  6. Simple equipment encourages students to make good use of local resource.
  7. Simple equipment often demands an understanding of basic principles rather than follow a set of complex experimental instruction (Funtua, 2003).

More so the condition under which improvisation takes place are:

  1. Finance:-  When a school budget is in adequate for the purchase of scientific equipment needed for instructional purpose, some other provision has to be made.  In these days galloping inflation and rising enrolment of students, most schools cannot provide enough money to meet the demands of the science department.
  2. Shortage in the Supply of Equipment:-  Even if money were to be available, it is possible to have a situation in which the apparatus/equipment are not of stock.
  3. Emergency:-  It may happen that an equipment or material got damage the course of its usage.  A resourceful teacher will not abandon the experiment, but rather think of improvising something in place of it.
  4. Teaching Strategy:-  Many science teachers realize that equipment for introductory work in science need to be factory made, or have to be high precision in their utility (Funta, 2003).

Teachers’ Attitudes to Improvisation

The standard of the teacher is the backbone of any educational system for developing scientifically literate citizen. The national policy on education (FRN, 1998), notes, that no educational standard can be above the quality of the teacher (p.38). The National science education standards. (National Research Council, 1996), also asserts “What students learn is greatly influenced by how they are taught” (p.38).

Abimbola (1986) and Otuka (1987) found misconception in students which they traced to misconception held by the teachers.  Therefore, students cannot achieve high level of performance in the absence of skilled, knowledgeable, talented and dedicated professional teachers.

Teachers have been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because they are ultimate responsible for translating policy into action and principle base on practice during interaction with the students (Afe, 2001).

Many investigations claimed that many factors responsible for teachers’ attitude towards improvisation.  Since scholars such as Sanwa (1985) argued that teachers a times have little or no knowledge of what to improvise.  He said for secondary school students to obtain high performance, the teacher has to possess high qualities. He opined that gender also imitate on how the teacher will impact the knowledge to their students.  Female teacher concur to the belief that improvisation is tedious task, that only male teacher are the most responsible to take care of the task.  Meanwhile, the scholar sees the job as a collective task, where both male and female teachers should take part.  Odunsin (1984) states that science teachers’ attitude toward improvisation play a major role in performance of the students.  The opined that, teacher with positive attitude arouse students and science and learning become ease.  When students interest is stimulated, he became motivated and this motivation lead him or her success, which could eventually lead to increase motivation and this lead to higher achievements in turn leads back to interest.

Adediran (1985) in a study of self-concept investigated the relationship between how teachers perceive themselves and effect on the academic achievement.  In this investigation, a number of very important results emerged.  The first result is that there was a negative and non-significant relationship between self-concept and teaching achievement of female teacher.  This means that the female teachers perceive themselves an in capable in handling some aspect that involve or need improvisation as it lead to poor performance of the students.

Igbalajobi (1985) after conducting an investigation into teacher attitude toward improvisation stated that factor such as ability hard work, task and luck are the base to the successful an positive to science teaching while unsuccessful one can be tagged with external factor such as incompetence, negative, low self-system and environmental factor.

According to Tomori (1987) teacher having positive attitude to improvisation can be in tune with the available resources within the environment. This means that be among the teachers that have right attitude to improvisation have the resources at hand, only a few teachers can go-a-mile to found resources for improvisation.  Meanwhile, Bajah (1996) in his studies revealed that teacher attitude toward improvisation a times based on culture of the school is one of the many variables that affect the teachers teaching or motivation towards improvisation, for instance schools that belong to missionaries impede creating or molding an image, sees it as creating an ideal environment.  He also observed that money constrain also contribute and determine teachers’ behavior to improvisation.  He attributes this to lack of funding from stake holder to support the teaching/learning and development of practical class.

Some of the teachers’ attitudes to improvisation of teaching biology in senior secondary school are listed below such as:-

  1. Teachers have more confidence in themselves when teaching with improvising materials (Positive).
  2. Teachers avoid topic that require the use of improvise materials (Negative).
  3. Teachers are able to teach every topic with ease using improvise material (Positive)
  4. Teachers are no longer anxious to teach biology because of topics that require improvisation (Negative).
  5. Teachers don’t use improvised material at all (Negative).
  6. Teachers are no longer conversant with standardized material (Negative).
  7. The use of improvised materials make job interesting as a biology teacher (Positive).
  8. Improvisation of material makes teacher to be more creative (Positive).
  9. By using improvising materials, students are motivated to learning, therefore it is encouraged by teacher to engage in using improvise material (Positive).
  10. The availability of the resource material within the environment encouraged the teachers to go for local material for improvisation (Positive).


Limitation of Improvisation

In spite of the justification on the need for improvisation, it also has some short coming namely:-

  1. Precision:- The improvised material do not give a precise result as it expected of the standard materials, thus the interest here is to show the scientific principle involved.
  2. Effectiveness and Durability:- Most of the improvised material lack durability.  Thus, most of them subjected to breakage.

iii.        Some material cannot be improvised at all, whether the standard is available or not available at all.

In support of the points on limitation above Balogun 1982, gave two major constraints to improvisation, technical and human constraints. According to him, the technical constrain relate to the question of the degree of accuracy and precision that is possible with the improvised equipment, perhaps vis-à-vis the factory made one.  This problem can be overcome with proper planning; one may seek for the assistance of local personnel, such as carpenter, blacksmith and others on the construction of certain materials, the human factor in other hand related to the teacher, what is to say, in spite of the resources suggested, what matter most is the teachers’ skills in developing resources while providing appropriate learning experience to the learner.

4.1       Description of Sample Characteristics

The characteristics of the sample selected were:

Sex and experience of the teachers as well as ownership and age of the school.

Sex:-  Of the nineteen biology teachers, thirteen (68%) were females while six (32%) were males.

Experience:-  The distribution of the teachers according to their length of teaching experience is show in table 1.

Table 1

Distribution of Biology Teachers by Working Experience

Experience Frequency Percentage
1-15 Less Experience 12 63
16-31 More Experience 7 27
Total 19 100%

Sixty three percent of the teachers were less experienced, while twenty seven percent were more experienced.

Ownership of the School:-  Of the nineteen teacher twelve (63%) were from private senior secondary school while seven (27%) were from the public secondary schools.

Age of the School:-  Twelve (63%) of the teachers were from young schools; while seven (27%) were from old school.

4.2       Answering of the Research Question

Research Question 1:- To what extent do biology teachers engage in the improvisation of learning materials in senior secondary schools in Ilorin?

Table 2 was used to answer the research question.







Table 2

Number of Improvised Learning by Biology Teacher in a Term

S/No Respondents Male = 6 No of Material Made No Collected Total % N=12 (Second Term) Teacher Week Level of Improvisation
01 1 4 5/42% Low (L)
02 1 6 7/58% Moderate (M)
03 1 5 6/50% Moderate (M)
04 1 6 7/50% Moderate (M)
05 2 8 10/83% High (H)
06 2 2 04/33% Low
      Median=6.5(50%) H=1 (14%)

L=3 (43%)

M=3 (43%)


07 2 2 04/33% Low (L)
08 3 4 7/58 M
09 3 5 8/67 H
10 3 6 9/75 H
11 4 4 8/67 H
12 1 3 4/33 L
13 3 2 5/42 M
14 6 3 9/75 H
15 6 6 12/100 H
16 4 4 8/67 H
17 5 4 9/75 H
18 4 4 8/67 H
19 4 5 9/75 H
Median=8 (60%) H=9 (%)

L=1 (%)

M=2 (43%)

From table 2 it is clear that the level of improvisation among the male teachers was moderate (50%) while that of the female teacher was high (67%).

Table 3

Male and Female Biology Teacher’s Attitudes to Improvisation of Institutional Materials

S/No Respondents Total Attitude Score/Mean Score Interpretation

Positive – 2.6=3.0

Neutral – 1.8=2.5

Negative – 1.0=1.7

01 30 (3.0) Positive (P)
02 19 (1.9) Neutral (N)
03 28 (2.8) P
04 22 (2.2) N
05 28 (2.8) P
06 24 (2.4) N
07 26 (2.6) N
  Mean of Means = 25


P = 3 (43%)

N = 4 (57%)

NG = 0 (0%) Female=12

          Female = 12    
08 21 (2.1) N
09 28 (2.8) P
10 17 (1.7) Negative (NG)
11 26 (2.6) N
12 24 (2.4) N
13 20 (2.0) N
14 28 (2.8) P
15 24 (2.4) N
16 19 (1.9) N
17 28 (2.8) P
18 27 (2.7) P
19 28 (2.8) P
  Mean of Means = 27


P = 6 (50%)

N = 5 (42%)

NG = 1 (8%)

While 43% of the male teachers had positive attitude, 57% of them had neutral attitude to the improvisation of learning materials.  No teachers had negative attitude.  Moreover 50% of the female teachers had positive attitude; 42% of them had neutral and 8% had negative attitude to improvisation.

Table 4

Attitude of Biology Teacher to Improvisation in Private and Public Secondary Schools

S/No Respondents Private School = 12 Total Attitude Score/Mean Score Interpretation

Positive – 2.6 = 3.0

Neutral – 1.8 = 2.5

Negative – 1.0 = 1.7

01 27 (2.7) P
02 25 (2.5) N
03 28 (2.8) P
04 27 (2.7) P
05 29 (2.9) P
06 30 (3.0) P
07 22 (2.2) N
08 25 (2.5) N
09 27 (2.7) P
10 28 (2.8) P
11 29 (2.9) P
12 30 (3.0) P
Mean of Means = 2.5 P = 0 (0%)

N = 6 (86%)

NG = 1 (14%)

Seventy five percent and 25% of the teacher in the private school had positive and neutral attitude respectively.  Again 86% of the teachers in the public schools and 14% had negative attitudes to improvisation of instructional materials.

Table 5

Attitude of Biology Teacher’s to Improvisation in Old and Young Secondary Schools

S/No Respondents Old Schools = 7 Total Attitude Score/Mean Score Interpretation

Positive – 2.6 = 3.0

Neutral – 1.8 = 2.5

Negative – 1.0 = 1.7

01 22 (2.2) N
02 25 (2.5) N
03 27 (2.7) P
04 28 (2.8) P
05 30 (3.0) P
06 30 (3.0) P
07 27 (2.7) P
Mean of Means = 2.7 P = 5 (71%)


Positive N = 2 (29%)

NG = 0 (0%)

Young School N = 12
08 22 (2.2) N
09 19 (1.9) N
10 21 (2.1) N
11 17 (1.7) N
12 19 (1.9) N
13 18 (1.8) N
14 15 (1.5) NEG
15 16 (1.6) NEG
16 30 (3.0) P
17 21 (2.1) N
18 20 (2.0) N
19 13 (1.3) NEG
Mean of Means = 19


P = 0 (0%)

N = 6 (86%)

NG = 1 (14%)

Seventy one percent of the teachers in the old school had neutral attitude, while twenty nine percent had neutral attitudes to improvisation.  The corresponding percentages for the young schools were nine fifty eight percent respectively.

Furthermore, thirty five percent of the teachers in young schools had negative attitudes.


Table 6

Attitude of Biology Teachers who were Less and More Experienced to Improvisation of Instructional Materials

S/No Respondents Less Experienced = 12 Total Attitude Score/Mean Score Interpretation

Positive – 2.6 = 3.0

Neutral – 1.8 = 2.5

Negative – 1.0 = 1.7

01 12 (1.2) NG
02 11 (1.1) NEG
03 21 (2.1) N
04 26 (2.6) N
05 22 (2.2) N
06 20 (2.0) N
07 21 (2.1) N
08 19 (1.9) N
09 19 (1.9) N
10 19 (1.9) N
11 18 (1.8) N
12 21 (2.1) N
Mean of Mean = 1.9     (N) P = (86%)

N = 10 (84%)

NG = 2 (16%)



More Experienced N = 17  
13 24 (2.4) N
14 28 (2.8) P
15 29 (2.9) P
16 28 (2.8) P
17 30 (3.0) P
18 30 (3.0) P
19 29 (2.9) P
Mean of Means=2.8 (P) P = 6 (86%)

N = 1 (14%)

NG = 0 (0%)

From table 6, it is seen that none of the teachers in the Less-experienced group had positive attitude whereas eighty six percent had positive attitude among the more experienced teachers.  Among the les experienced teachers, eighty four percent had neutral attitudes.  The corresponding figure among more qualified was fourteen percent.  Finally while sixteen percent of the less experienced had negative attitude, none of the more experienced did.



Problem solving and inquiry approaches to learning science especially in laboratory settings require the use of instructional materials.  These materials help to learn concept and principles.

It is therefore recommended that biology teachers construct and collect learning material to add to the ones available in the school.  Teachers and students should collaborate to make learning materials such as Bunsen burner using local material.

Another factor hampering the practice of improvising by teacher is lack of relevant skills.  Therefore seminars and workshops on improvisation of learning materials for science teachers should be organized by relevant agencies like the National Teachers’ Institute and Universal Basic Education Board in Kwara State.

There are a lot of community resources from teaching biology in secondary schools, teachers are advised to be conversant with the various biology related resources in the locality and be ready together for classify and stock them for is occasion arise.

There should be constants monitoring and supervision of teachers by head teacher and government officials to make teachers use instructional materials in presenting their lessons.  This close monitoring will force the teachers to make or collect or construct many learning material for use in the teaching.



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